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Posted on May 7th, 2014, by

Chocolate is perhaps the most popular and esteemed delicacy in many countries around the world. Chocolate is a high-tech product, the production of which is impossible without the establishment of control by powerful machines, and subtle physical and chemical processes. It is the source of glucose needed for mental activity. In addition to sugar, chocolate contains over 300 elements. Chocolate has a long history, positive effect on the human body and is a favorite product for many people all over the globe.

The history of chocolate began in Mexico in the 15th century. It was the time when Christopher Columbus landed on American land and was offered a cup of chocolate as a sign of hospitality. That period the chocolate was used exclusively in liquid form.
After that the chocolate became popular thanks to Fernando Cortez, the viceroy of New Spain and the Spanish monarch. The 19th century was the revolutionary in the manufacture of chocolate. In 1828 the engineer Conrad van Houten invented and patented a hydraulic press that was used to extract cocoa butter. In 1879, after eight years of experiments, the Swiss Daniel Peter produced a solid milk chocolate. That same year, the inventor Rodolphe Lindt was engaged in the production of chocolate fondat, which melted in your mouth. That chocolate was so successful that twenty years later, Zurich confectioner Rodolphe Shpryungli laid out for the invention of Lindt 1.5 million francs (the cost of 435 kg of gold). With the development of civilization, the production process of chocolate has become cheaper, and the chocolate is available for everyone. Today, chocolate is the most popular group of confectionery products.

The positive and negative effects of chocolate are widely discussed and cause a lot of controversy. People’s opinions on the impact of a delicious chocolate product on the health are always different. Discussing the positive effects of chocolate, there is a need to mention that its consumption stimulates the creative activity of man. In addition, it helps to withstand heavy loads and stimulates the brain activity of man (Coveleskie, 2004). Improvement of the brain is not the only benefit that can be obtained from the chocolate. This sweet product has beneficial effects on cardiac system. Consumption of chocolate provides the production of antioxidants, which reduce the aging process. It sounds strange, but the chocolate is useful for teeth and gums. Chocolate is also an effective way to lose weight.

Discussing the negative effects of chocolate, there is a need to mention that the dark chocolate is contraindicated for children. The cocoa beans contain nitrogen components, which damage the exchange processes. So, for diabetics and people suffering from obesity, chocolate is contraindicated. Some people believe that chocolate is the culprit of excess weight, since it in fact is a high-calorie product. Not so long ago it was believed that chocolate causes acne is the cause of dental caries. Now this opinion is refuted by science, as an antiseptic effect of chocolate prevents the appearance of caries, and it has become a great chocolate cosmetic.

The product that contains cocoa products is used to be called chocolate. The cocoa products include mass and cocoa butter, which in turn is made from cocoa beans. Besides the main components of chocolate, it may contain dairy products, nuts, flavorings and other ingredients. There are many types of chocolate that are really popular all over the world.

– Dark chocolate is also called plain chocolate or black chocolate. This type of chocolate is the closest to its original shape. Dark chocolate or “healthy chocolate” is produced by adding fat and sugar to cocoa. This chocolate is without milk or with much less milk than milk chocolate. It has a bitter aftertaste. Most often it is used for frosting, casting figurines, making candy, ice cream, mousse, hot chocolate or sherbet. According to the approved norms, the dark chocolate must contain 65% sugar and only 35% by weight of cocoa, mixed with cocoa butter. Life-extensionists are best advised to eat dark chocolate rather than the kinds of calorie-rich confectionery popular in America (Chocolate, 2010).

– Milk chocolate: This type of chocolate is the most popular candy chocolate in America. This is a solid chocolate with milk in the form of powdered milk, liquid milk or condensed milk. It contains about 20 percent of cocoa solids. Milk chocolate was invented in 1876 by Swiss chocolate manufacturer, where he combined the powdered milk with chocolate. According to the regulation, the composition of milk chocolate must meet approved standards: 25% of cocoa mass, 55% of sugar, 14% of milk and 6% of fragrances.

– White chocolate is the chocolate with cocoa butter, sugar, milk, emulsifier, vanilla and sometimes other seasonings. It contains no fat ingredients of cocoa beans and, therefore, is not quite white. It has a mild and pleasant flavor and can be used for Chocolate Mousse, Panna Cotta and other desserts.

– Semisweet chocolate: This is a classic dark chocolate, which can be purchased at most grocery stores. It is often used for cakes and cookies. It can also be used instead of sweet dark chocolate. It has a pleasant, sweet flavor. It usually contains 40-62% of cocoa.

– Bittersweet chocolate is sweeter than unsweetened chocolate, has a bitter taste. It has more cocoa butter, a little sugar, lecithin, and vanilla. Bittersweet chocolate is used by many chefs and contains a high percentage of cocoa, up to75 per cent.

Chocolate is one of the few products which went through the transformation from a bitter drink of Indians to noble and exquisite dessert products of mass consumption, produced in a wide range. In addition to good taste and commercial value, the chocolate has the property of uplift and empower. The chocolate is a useful product if it is used in moderation.

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