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Posted on April 12th, 2014, by

To date, there are over 100 million computers and more than 80% of them are combined in various information networks beginning with small local networks in the offices and ending with global networks. Thus, we are going to discuss computer networking in the body of this project.

First of all, it is important to mention that a computer network is a collection of computers spread over a territory and interconnected to share different resources (data, software and hardware components). Computer data networks are the result of the information revolution, and they will be able to form the primary means of communication in the future (Michalec, et al, 2009). Worldwide trend to connect computers in the network is caused by a number of important reasons, such as the acceleration of information transmission, the possibility of rapid exchange of information between users, receiving and sending messages (fax, E-mail messages, e-conferences, etc.) directly from workstation to instantly receive any information from anywhere in the world, as well as the exchange of information between computers of different manufacturers running different software.

Observing advantages of using computer networking, we can state that these advantages include the following aspects:

ü  Resources division allow to use specific resources economically, for instance, to control peripheral devices such as printers, external storage devices, modems, etc. from all connected workstations;

ü  Data sharing provides the ability to access and manage databases from peripheral working places in need of information;

ü  Software division enables the simultaneous use of centralized, previously installed software;

ü  Separation of the central processing unit resources provides the use of computing power to process the data to other systems in the network. The offered possibility is that the available resources are not pounce instantly, but only through a special processor available to each workstation;

ü  Multiuser mode that means simultaneous use of centralized software applications, usually pre-installed on the application server.

In addition, it can be stated that virtually all network services are built on the client-server principle. Morris also stated that computer networks fall into two main types: client/server networks and peer-to-peer networks. A client/server network uses one or more dedicated machines (the server) to share the files, printers, and applications. A peer-to-peer network allows any user to share files with any other user and doesn’t require a central, dedicated server (Morris, 2004). Explaining the above stated information, we can say that server is a computer capable to provide customers (according to the amount of the requests which come from them) some network services in the network. The client-server is usually constructed as follows: on arrival of requests from clients server runs a variety of programs to provide network services; as the running programs server responds to client requests. All software in the network can be divided into client and server software. In this case, the server software provides network services, while the client software transmits requests to the server and receives responses from the server.

Dwelling on the methods of data transmission in computer networking, we can state that the exchange of data between network nodes includes the three methods of data transmission: simplex (unidirectional) transmission (TV, radio); duplex (transmission and receipt of information are carried on a rota basis); duplex (bidirectional), each station simultaneously transmits and receives data. Being more specific, we need to note that sequential transmission is the most often used method of the data transmission in networks, while asynchronous and synchronous serial transmission is also commonly used in computer networking.

When the speech is going about the exchange of information between computers, it is possible to mention that software plays a key role in the process. The program that provides an appropriate set of network services is seen as the server, while the programs which are the users of these servicers are called clients. The programs have distributed character, i.e. one part of the functions of the application program is implemented in the client program, while the other – in the server program, and a certain protocol is used for their interaction. To control the interactions between applications and system resources each workstation must have an operating system in the network.

Of course, there exist many different operating systems and applications can access files on the local drives, represent information on a computer screen, print documents to local printers, etc. with their help. These operating systems monitor access to computer resources, such as memory, storage, hard disks and floppy disks, and any peripheral devices (printers, fax machines, modems, etc.). Moreover, operating systems which the user used for the own purposes also provides basic networking features, enabling network users to share information between computers.

In conclusion, we have discussed computer networking, mentioned its main advantages, specific characteristics, and especially dwelled on the types of data transmission.


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