The research question is as follows: what are the effects of color on the perception of visual information by individuals. Participants of the study were shown words printed in black ink and incongruent color ink. After they observed the words, they had to identify the colors and words. The time they spent on responding was measured. The difference in time revealed the difference in the impact of the color on the perception of the visual information. The findings of the study reveals the fact that participants spend more time on the perception of the information presented in incongruent color, while the information in black color is perceived better and faster. Therefore, the printed information in black color is easier for the perception of individuals.
Participants of the study were students at the age of 19-24, of different gender and racial/ethnic background.
Stimuli included written words printed in different colors on white papers with the white background. Stimuli A were words printed in black ink; stimuli B were number-words printed in color ink; stimuli C were color words in incongruent color ink; stimuli D were blocks of color. Participants of the study were shown cards with stimuli. After that watches were stopped for reaction time measured to the nearest hundredth of a second. Cards used in the study were 60 cards of each stimuli. Each card had the white background on a white piece of print paper. Words were typed on times new roman 14 point font. Pen and paper were used during the experiments for recording reaction time.
Participants of the study received detailed instructions on each experiment. Three experiments were conducted and participants were given instructions before each experiment. Two cards were used to check whether the participants understood the task properly.
All responses were recorded and used for the further analysis. The time recorded was compared to find out difference in responses of participants of the study. The t-test was used to control errors that could have occurred in the course of experiments.
The first experiment. Participants had to read the written words in stimulus A) colors in black ink and stimulus C) color words in incongruent ink. The time participants needed to read words was measured. The mean time participants needed for stimulus A was 1:06:58. The mean time participants needed for stimulus C was 1:09:44. The standard deviation comprised 0:15:30 for stimulus A and 0:16:53 for stimulus C.
|N=20||Stimulus A||Stimulus C|
The second experiment. The participants had to identify the color of the ink of stimulus C) color-words in incongruent ink and stimulus D) blocks of color. The time participants needed to identify the color of the ink was measured. The mean time participants needed for stimulus C was 1:33:22. The mean time participants needed for stimulus D was 1:22:22. The standard deviation comprised 0:15:09 for stimulus C and 0:27:09 for stimulus D.
|N=20||Stimulus C||Stimulus D|
The third experiment. The participants had to say the color of the ink of stimulus B) number-words in color ink and stimulus C) color-words in incongruent ink. The time participants needed to say color of the ink was measured. The mean time participants needed for stimulus C was 1:31:48. The mean time participants needed for stimulus B was 1:26:55. The standard deviation comprised 0:15:26 for stimulus C and 0:11:10 for stimulus B.
|N=20||Stimulus C||Stimulus B|