The observations of 2 Englishwomen, Margaret Cavendish and Caroline Herschel, were added to the science of their time period. Herschel, an outstanding astronomer, was born in Hanover and moved to Britain where she worked as a subordinate to her brother, William Herschel (Ivie, Ray). There Herschel learned math. She obtained a small pay from King George III and was the primary female to be recognized for a scientific status. She found out 8 comets, and submitted an Index to Flamsteed’s Observations of Fixed Stars to the Royal Society in 1798, becoming the initial lady to present a document there. In 1835, Herschel and Mary Fairfax Somerville were the primary 2 ladies to be honored with memberships in a Royal Astronomical Society.
Margaret Cavendish, the primary Englishwoman to write lengthily about nature science and philosophy, issued the Observations upon Experimental Philosophy that attempted to heighten ladies’ interest in science. The observations provided an analysis of the experimental science of Bacon. Also she criticized microscopes as flawed tools. Though gender roles were chiefly defined in the 18th century, females experienced amazing advances in science. It was the great step forward in comparison to the previous centuries.
During the 1700’s, England started to modernize in many spheres. Looking at the universities, Cambridge of 1700 was not too different from Cambridge of 50 years earlier. Though people were different, activities were the same. Religious males controlled the colleges through the government, utilizing regulations, acts and finances to obtain their ends. Mathematics in the 18th century didn’t evolve in England as well as on the continent of Europe. Physics noticed certain movement forward as disagreement about basic regulations occupied the attention of those involved in attempting to find resolutions to existing troubles of acknowledging the nature of the universe. Though the mathematicians were first rate in terms of the capability, they didn’t have motivation to develop. There were some vivid spots, however.
Before the late 19th century there was much under-representation of females in science that could only be equated to the military which was famous for systematic exclusion of females’ entry. By late 1960 there were merely 1% of engineers. In the year 2000 the percentage rose to almost eleven percent of engineers.
Englishwomen in STEM Fields: 21st Century
In the 21st century, international competition and fast advances in STEM fields require a workforce that is increasingly more scientifically and also technically proficient. The Bureau of Labor Statistics reports STEM jobs are projected to increase by 21.4% from 2004 to 2014, compared to the expansion of 13% in all jobs during the same period. Faster than usual, expansion is expected in the life sciences, social sciences, and the science and engineering-related occupations. Today England can’t expect to dominate science and technology in the future as it did someday when the country enjoyed a large share of the globe’s STEM resources (DeWandre, 278-279).
Many females-professionals contribute a lot in spite of the obstacles of the 21st century. For instance, ladies in astronomy have had a deep impact on space science. Nowadays, Englishwomen hold some of the most important statuses in the total industry. Many organizations have been evolved to focus on supporting female scientists. Heather Anita Couper is a British astronomer who devoted her living to popularization of astronomy on the British television. She was a president of the British Astronomical Association. Couper has written some books on astronomy, many of these in partnership with Nigel Henbest and made lots of presentations for radio, TV, and in public. She also gave lectures as professor of astronomy at Gresham College. On 2 June 1999, asteroid 3922 Heather was named in Couper’s honour. Therefore, in spite of customary stereotypes and a low percentage of ladies graduating from universities with degrees in science, the success of many females in astronomy have changed the dynamics of science and influenced a generation of females and young girls.