According to Aristotle, a human behaviour sometimes (but not always) involves the rational thinking and self-mastery; at the same time the animal-like behaviour is not based upon the conscious choice.
The pleasure is not the most perfect way of life, and not its aim, it is rather a part of a perfect life. But it’s not a sufficient thing to live in the pleasure only and could results in a slavish life.
Ethics is not a matter for theoretical concept according to the views expressed by Aristotle. The sketch of an ethical theory, or its outline has to serve as a framework for further ethical considerations.
ANSWER: (1) happiness
Eudaimonia, a concept close to happiness, is the fruit of well-being in Aristotelian ethics.
ANSWER: (1) The whole of moral virtue.
Aristotle claimed that justice not a part but the whole of virtue.
ANSWER: True. Plato claims that justice should always be pursued for its own sake. The Ring of Gyges shows that story of a man whose morality died without a control and who has turned into a thief, a murderer and a tyrant because he did not followed the justice because it would not bring him any benefits.
ANSWER: (2) the sensory
The sensory part has irrational character but people still are able to control it (it goes in the contrast with nutritive part that could not be controlled at all)
ANSWER: (4) None of the above.
In the Republic, Glaucon and Adeimantus claim that it is justice are valued for its own sake as well as for the sake of what comes from it.
The ‘mean’ can’t be determined absolutely, in the same way, for all individuals and for all circumstances because it is relative and it is not the same for each person and circumstances.
ANSWER: (4) a mean
Aristotle argued that the mean is a characteristic of virtue; while other variants are the characteristics of vice.
ANSWER: (3) honesty
According to Aristotle, the states of character are moral virtues, but not intellectual virtues. Honesty is definitely a moral virtue, because hones person is acting well. Therefore it could be classified as the state of character.
ANSWER: (4) inversion
Returning good to friends and harm to enemies is an example inversion.
This case is a clear example of Aristotelian rectificatory justice because it deals with the case of injustice. The judge restores justice by ensuring the gains and losses of the parties in the case are equalled out.
ANSWER: (5) distributive
In accordance with the Aristotelian concept of justice, it needs to be distributed proportionately; therefore it is an example of distributive justice.
The views of Aristotle on the role of Good are different from Plato’s. Plato’s thought about the ideal reality that would feature the radical separation of the Form of the Good from the particular forms of human conduct. It would be mean that the good life is inaccessible to almost everyone. The basis of Aristotle’s moral theory is made on the following elements: tradition and experience, realities of daily life and morality.
ANSWER: (4) between points ‘a’ and ‘c’
Aristotle believed that pleasure is not the aim of every human action, because not every pleasure is good. Therefore the pleasure could be achieved in the process of action.
The life of contemplation is the highest human activity, the highest virtue. An accordance with Aristotle, wisdom is based upon universal truths and the principles of nature, therefire the it is contemplation.
ANSWER: (4) The life of justice is preferable to the life of injustice
Thrasymachus argues that that injustice stronger than justice and that it results in a happier life. But Socrates objects it by saying that the unjust man is really ignorant and therefore weak and bad. Thus, the life of justice is better the life of injustice.
Bravery and rashness have one definite characteristic in common which is fearlessness. Their difference is the knowledge (brave person only stands when its right, and the rash person stands in all cases, no matter if it’s right to do so or really not).
The moral virtue is the result of habit but the intellectual virtue is the result of teaching/learning.