1. Who founded the ADL? What is the purpose of the ADL and how has it evolved?
The ADL was founded in 1913 by volunteers, who wanted to put the end to anti-Semitism and any manifestation of defamation. The main purpose of the ADL is to stop by appeals to reason, moral norms, and legal norms as well as by any other acceptable means the spread of anti-Semitism and to secure justice and fair treatment of all citizens alike, regardless of their race, gender, ethnic origin and other issues. In such a way, the main point of the ADL is to put the end to any discriminatory practices in the society.
2. What are the differences among stereotypes, prejudice, discrimination, and scapegoating?
Traditionally, the society is vulnerable to the impact of stereotypes, prejudice, discrimination, and scapegoating. Basically, these concepts are closely intertwined. To put it more precisely, stereotypes are biased concepts and ideas existing in the society in relation to certain issues or people. Prejudice is another form of biased attitude of the society to certain issues or people without any relevant correlation of the bias to the real life. In fact, neither stereotype nor prejudice have the ground in the real life. For instance, people may have stereotypes in relation to women concerning their professional skills in the field of management, for instance, but, in actuality, these stereotypes have no ground in the real life. Stereotypes and prejudice lead to the unfair and unjust attitude to certain groups of people, which are subjects to stereotyping and prejudices. As a result, they are discriminated on the ground of stereotypes and prejudices.
People treat them on the ground of stereotypes and prejudices but not on the ground of their skills, abilities, and achievements. Eventually, people vulnerable to stereotyping and prejudicing become vulnerable to scapegoating because the majority that develops and maintains stereotypes and biases and discriminates minorities tends to perceive the discriminated minority as if its representatives are responsible for all the troubles and problems representatives of the majority have. For instance, a discriminated group of people can be vulnerable to scapegoating, if the economic crisis begins, because the majority believes that they are responsible for the economic crisis.
3. How prevalent are anti-Semitic views? Who is most likely to hold anti-Semitic views?
In spite of the rise of the Human Rights movement and emergence of multiculturalism in the contemporary society, anti-Semitic views are still extremely strong and Jews are still vulnerable to the impact of anti-Semitism. In this respect, it is worth mentioning the fact that the conservative part of the society and the white majority is the most likely to hold the anti-Semitic views because this group is accustomed to the dominant position in the society. Therefore, they are intolerant in relation to minorities. Moreover, they become vulnerable to stereotyping and discrimination. In this regard, Jews are particularly vulnerable to the impact of discrimination, anti-Semitism because this ethnic group was always discriminated. One of the reasons for the persistent discrimination of Jews is the preservation of Jewish traditions and low integration of Jews in the mainstream cultural group.
4. How can organizations reduce the use of stereotypes and prejudice at work?
Organizations can promote tolerance and develop promotional and educational programs to show the equality of all people. In addition, organizations can involve representatives of different cultural groups, races, gender to participate in common programs. Through the mutual work, they can unite people and minimize the risk of discrimination. Organizations can develop the civil action to stop discrimination.
Cognitive Enhancement Drugs
In actuality, the use of cognitive enhancement drugs seems to be acceptable because the drugs are used by adults in their regular life. Many people are accustomed to consume enhancement drugs. Often such drugs are prescribed by health care professionals to enhance learning of students. Therefore, the use of cognitive enhancement drugs seems to be reasonable and justified in business practice. However, this practice may lead to quite controversial outcomes.
In fact, the consumption of cognitive enhancement drugs is quite a dangerous game because it may lead to the growing dependence of individuals on drugs. In addition, the uncontrollable consumption of drugs may lead to negative side-effects. At any rate, the consumption of drugs needs the control from the part of health care professionals. Therefore, individuals can pay with their health for the improvement of their performance in the workplace.
In such a context, it is obvious that the decision to take cognitive enhancement drugs is the personal choice of each individual. Individuals should decide whether they are ready to put their health at stake for the sake of the improvement of their performance. At this point, it should be said that positive effects of drugs may be short-run, whereas their impact on health may be long-run.
Therefore, individuals can use other options. For instance, they may change their lifestyle and to practice sports that will improve their health and contribute to the improvement of their performance.