1. New York public library ”“ it has numerous branches in Manhattan, The Bronx and Staten Island. Its buildings were created by Alexander SaeltzerGriffith Thomas and Thomas Stent. Rundbogenstil style is prevailing. Different buildings were united on May 23, 1895 under the name of “The New York Public Library, Astor, Lenox and Tilden Foundations”ť.
2. Pennsylvania Station ”“ designed by McKim, Mead, and White in 1910. It is known as outstanding masterpiece of the Beaux-Arts style and one of the architectural jewels of Big Apple.
3. Cooper Hewitt ”“ was found in 1897 by Amy, Eleanor, and Sarah Hewitt. Location – Fifth Avenue and East 91st Street, part of Manhattan’s Museum Mile. It was designed on the base of MusĂ©e des Arts DĂ©coratifs model.
4. Metropolitan Museum of Art ”“ was designed in 1870 by group of American citizens. Finally opened in 1872. The design of corresponds trends of Beaux-Arts style.
5. Equitable building ”“ it is 38 floors office building located in located at 120 Broadway in the Financial District of Lower Manhattan. It was found in 1915 by Ernest R. Graham in neoclassical style.
6. Chrysler building ”“ this Art Deco building located on the east side of Manhattan in the Turtle Bay area at the intersection of 42nd Street and Lexington Avenue. Curiously, it was the world’s tallest building for 11 months before it was surpassed by the Empire State Building in 1931. Chrysler building was designed by William Van Alen for a project of Walter P. Chrysler.
7. Empire state building – 1,250 ft (381 meters) tall architecture creation located on Fifth Avenue and West 34th Street. It was designed by William F. Lamb. It is the world’s first building withÂ more than 100 floors. It was officially completed on May 1, 1931.
It is well known fact that architecture used to be a kind of symbiosis of different cultural trends and directions. Different architectural approaches intended with varied goals. Today, we are motivated to trace some interconnections and transformations of architecture field, by making particular analysis of “The Death and Life of Great American Cities”ť by Jane Jacobs and “The
Architecture of New York City”ť by D.Reynolds.
Talking about urban morphology of New York city, Jane Jacobs stresses the main idea, which makes the architecture of Big Apple, as the representative of modern trend, different from priorities of middle ages. As the proof let’s remind the 9 chapter “The need for small blocks”ť. The author emphasizes that value of small blocks is explained by their ability to provide cross-use access to the citizens of neighborhood. At the same time, writer says that small blocks became the mean to kill the diversity of architecture and to depersonalize city’s look. In this order, the trend towards practical goal of city planning became prevailing. This is the main difference from the concept of “urba city”ť at middle ages. Keith D. Lilley claimed in his researches that medieval cities were fully intended to bring the idea of cosmos (God) interconnection, instead of practical function. This is the story of architecture evaluation, which was fully implemented in New York case.
In his turn, D.Reynolds grabs readers attention with some particular incomes to New York architecture from other cultures. In this way, the example of The Old Merchants House, which became the symbol of Federal style in architecture of New York city is to the point. Previously, we’ve stressed that the entire concept architecture of Big Apple can be perceived as combination of extremely different directions form varied cultures. The Old merchants House implemented the Greek Revival trend very popular at 1785-1815. This approach involved values proclaimed by Greek democracy and Rome republic. Today, the building of The Old Merchants House is the museum distinguishing main ideas of Federal architecture well combined with elements of Victorian era.