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Posted on April 15th, 2014, by

DNA replication is a biological process of copying the deoxyribonucleic acid, which can occur in the process of cell division. Meanwhile, genetic material encoded in DNA is doubled and divided between daughter cells. DNA-binding proteins along with helicase and topoisomerase untwine DNA, hold a temple in diluted state and rotate the DNA molecule. Correctness of replication is provided by an exact match of complementary base pairs and activity of DNA polymerase able to detect and correct an error. Replication is catalyzed by several DNA polymerases. After replication spirals curl back without the expenditure of energy and any enzymes.

Thus, it is possible to conclude that DNA replication is a key event in the cell division.

Usually replication takes place in three major stages:

  • replication initiation
  • elongation
  • replication termination

Regulation of DNA replication is carried out mainly at the stage of initiation. This is quite easy to implement, because replication cannot start with any DNA fragment, and with a well-defined replication initiation site.  In addition, it is possible to add that the notion of a replication initiation site is closely related to the concept of a replicon. A replicon is a DNA site replicated after the synthesis of DNA from this site. It is proposed that DNA’ synthesis is controlled by the interaction of initiator proteins with genetic elements termed replicators (Heintz 983). DNA replication closely relates to the DNA polymerase enzyme because it assists in catalyzing the deoxyribonucleotides into a DNA strand.

In conclusion, it is possible to say that the process of DNA replication ensures accurate transmission of genetic information from generation to generation. DNA replication implements an enzyme complex that consists of the different proteins, called replisome.


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