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Posted on March 30th, 2013, by

Chapter 1. Common and functional types

Jung began work on psychological types after his final break with Freud. Before we proceed directly to a discussion of psychological types, it seems to me to show how Jung viewed mental substance in general. Under the psychic substance (Psyche) Jung understood not only what we usually calls the soul, but also the totality of all mental processes – both conscious and unconscious, that is, mental substance – it is something more extensive and detailed than the soul. Psychic substance consists of two complementary and at the same time opposed to each other domains: consciousness and unconsciousness.

According to Jung’s theory there are not just the ego, shadow, persona, and other components of the mental, but also the individual characteristics of all of this. In addition, there are a number of measurable quantities of certain sizes, which combine in their diversity, form the personality types. Jung distinguishes two general types, which he called introverted and extroverted, and special types, the peculiarity of which is obtained due to the fact that the individual adapts or guided by its most differentiated functions – sensation, intuition, thinking and feeling.

First he called the common types of installation, which differ from each other the direction of his interest, the movement of libido, the latter – types of functions. Thus, the common types of installation differ from each other a special setting in relation to the object. In introvert attitude towards him abstracted, he tries to protect itself against the excessive power of the object. Extroverted, by contrast, refers to an object is positive, he directs his subjective setting of the object, I mean in other words extroverted setting characterized by positive and introverted – negative attitude to the object. Extrovert thinks, feels and acts, comparing himself with the subject, he focuses primarily on the outside world. Jung has called this type of orientation. The basis for the introverted orientation is the subject and the object has only a minor role. In practice, these types we can see even without conducting special studies. Closed, it’s hard to talk disposable, timid nature are the exact opposite of people with an open, courteous, cheerful and friendly character, which all get along, sometimes quarrel, but always stand in relation to the outside world affect him and his part perceive it influence.

Under the mental function Jung understands as a form of mental activity, which theoretically remains the same under different circumstances.
Jung distinguishes rational and irrational functional types. To include such a rational types who are characterized by the primacy of the reasonable functions. Common feature of both types is that they are subject to reasonable judgment, they are associated with the estimates and judgments: Thinking things through assesses cognition, in terms of truth and falsity, and a sense of emotion, in terms of attractiveness and unattractiveness. As plants, determining human behavior, these two fundamental functions at any given point in time are mutually exclusive; domination or the bottom one or the other. Because of this, some people making a decision based on their feelings rather than on reason.

Two other functions, sensation and intuition, Jung called irrational, because they are not estimates or opinions, but based on perception, which is not assessed and not interpreted. Sensation perceives things as they are, is a real.

Intuition also perceives, but not so much an aware sensory mechanism, but because of the unconscious ability to understand the inner nature of things.

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