Pan-Arabism is a political ideology within the scope of Arab nationalism, which advocates that all Arab peoples without exception, both in Asia and Africa, form one nation and should therefore move towards political unity. In the mid-sixties, and the Egyptian Gamal Abdel Nasser as the main figurehead, an Arab nationalism became a settled policy approach in most countries of the Maghreb and the Middle East. Sometimes helped the Soviet Union, the sense of Arab unity, closely linked to social revolution in some cases, international significance being charged a leader Nasser’s leading non-aligned movement.
Since the late forties, popular nationalism was taking a few features that would ultimately be defining and differentiating of Arab nationalism; acquired notable importance is the idea of “third world”ť of developing countries trying to not be absorbed under the orbit of any two blocks (the socialist and capitalist), as described in The Arab World.
A second characteristic was the idea of political unity among the Arabs. The newly independent countries have enough common elements (historical, cultural, economic, social, etc.) and so they could forge a much closer union among them. This unit would provide, according to its leaders, not just a greater degree of collective power, but achieved the moral unity between the people and government. These elements were added one: socialism, the growing influence of this idea was in part a reflection of what was happening in the world. Specifically stated in the articulation of Marxist ideas in Arabic and materialized in control of all resources by the state to try and benefit the whole population. In countries where Baathism or Naser (the two main political currents that defended the principles of Arab nationalism) came to power, these principles will be defined primarily described in the following measures: claiming the unification of the Arab world into one nation, nationalization of foreign companies and Agrarian Reform, development of public services (health and education mainly) quality available to all the people and seeking the elimination of poverty.buy essay
One of the most controversial measures taken by Nasser nationalized the Suez Canal in 1956. This led to the decision by France and Britain to intervene militarily to secure strategic control channel. This intervention was made without consulting the United States. British troops, Israeli and French were deployed in the area and achieved a series of important victories. However, the pressure of the Cold War made the U.S. government considers that a war of invasion by Western powers to such an important country in the region such as Egypt, would make all the Arab world to the Soviet bloc opt. This fact was conveyed to the Arab population as Nasserism an incredible victory, because for the first time in decades an Arab leader was faced with the Western powers and they managed to push back. The revolts against monarchs increased relations with the West, and ended up taking power in countries like Syria, Iraq and Arabia.
This was the moment of maximum brightness to pan-Arabism, which due to popular support he provided, set out to achieve the goal of unifying the Arab nation. Several attempts were made to union of Arab countries ended in failure, the most important of which was the United Arab Republic.
Six-Day War: The decline. Nasser’s figure was subject to many pressures: as the charismatic leader was on his shoulders the demands of the Arab world to end the Palestinian problem, which for some sectors involved unleash an armed confrontation with Israel. On the other hand, Israeli leaders perceived a danger that Nasser could unite the fragmented Arab countries in the area under a single state structure, and that could become a new AtatĂĽrk, as advocated by some sectors seek defeat the armed conflict and to bring about his downfall. These tensions led in 1967 to the Six Day War, in which there are various interpretations triggers. This war was in any case a failure for the Arab side (formed by Egypt, Syria and Jordan) that were forced to give up suffering big losses. This defeat marked the end of pan-Arabism, for the Arab population felt so disappointed by the results of the 1967 war, as it was in 1947, and as then radicalized public opinion, this time about Islamist movements, as stated in The Arab World.
The scheme opened in Libya Muammar al-Gaddafi in 1969 was also pan-Arab (belatedly) and attempted union with Egypt, Libya, Tunisia and then finally Morocco. Pan-Arabism as the official ideology persists today in some states such as Syria or Libya, but in general, has been replaced by local nationalism and a resurgence, becoming increasingly important pan-Islam at the hands of Islamist groups. Recent examples are the rise of the Muslim Brotherhood in Egypt, the influence of the Shia community during the Iraq War or the rise of Hamas in the Palestinian Territories.