Ensure adequate population coverage
The research design should also ensure the adequate population coverage. This means that researchers should encourage participants representing different groups to participate in the study. Often, the diversity of the population involved in the study is crucial for the reliability of its outcomes and the overall success of the study. At this point, researchers should encourage participants from different target groups to take an active part in the study. At the same time, researchers should focus strictly on the adequate population. What is meant here is the fact that the involvement of participants, who have no or little relation to the subject of the study, may be not only pointless but also dangerous because the involvement of such participants can increase the risk of error and inadequate interpretation of the results of the study as well as it may lead researchers to erroneous conclusions concerning the subject of the study and hypothesis suggested in terms of the study.
2.3 Minimize respondent burden
At the same time, respondents should at ease, while participating in a study. In this regard, experimental studies often make participants anxious and nervous as they are aware of their participation in an experiment. In such a situation, the results of the study may be inaccurate because of the tension and nervous state of respondents. Therefore, researchers may face difficulties because respondent suffer from the burden of their anxiety and psychological pressure of the experiment.
On the other hand, researchers should create comfortable ambiance for respondents to make them feel at ease. For instance, when a researcher conducts face-to-face interviews, he or she should create comfortable ambiance to help respondents to relax and to feel more at ease. For instance, at the beginning of the interview a good joke can help respondents to relax and a researcher can establish contact with respondents and to conduct the interview effectively. In fact, this strategy should be applied in studies using other methods as well.
2.4 Methods to encourage participation
Researchers should apply methods to encourage participation of subjects in the study because it is often difficult to involve people into the study. In this respect, the motivation of participants is very important. However, the use of material motivators is not always possible because material motivators can affect responses of participants and, therefore, the reliability of the study will be under a question. In such a situation, researchers should focus on the use of non-material motivation. In this regard, the positive feedback participants receive for their participation in the study can be particularly helpful because participants feel being encouraged by the positive feedback and are will to participate in the study. In contrast, without positive feedback, participants are discouraged to take part in the study.
3. Data collection
3.1 Effective sample management
The data collection is another stage of the research design, which is extremely important because it defines the overall results of the study and outcomes of the research. In this respect, the effective sample management can affect consistently the research design. What is meant here is the fact that researchers should collect data involving the target population. The collection of the information should be very careful to minimize the risk of error. At the same time, researchers should develop clear criteria and have an accurate plan of data collection and processing. Effective sample management can save time of the research and increase its reliability.
3.2 Maximization of contact rates
In such a context, the maximization of contact rates is particularly important because through maximization of contact rates, researchers can establish contacts with participants and obtain as much information as possible. At the same time, if the information is collected properly, according to the plan developed by the researcher and with the use of effective same management, the maximization of contact rates helps to trace the key trends and find out key issues related to the subject of the study. In fact, the contact rates help to involve a large number of participants that naturally increases the scope and reliability of the study as well as its accuracy. In such a way, researchers should develop positive contact with respondents that will improve the overall results of the study.
3.3 Minimization of refusals and terminations
In addition, researchers should focus on the minimization of refusals and terminations because they can undermine the effectiveness of the study and lead to erroneous results. To put it more precisely, refusals and terminations undermine the process of the study. What is meant here is the fact that, initially, a researcher has a plan of a research but, if participants start to drop out of the study, refusing and terminating their participation in the study, the original plan of the study just falls apart because the researcher cannot involve all the participants he or she intended to involve. As a result, the data collected in the course of the study may be not full, whereas information gaps may put under a question the reliability of the study. In fact, the lack of participants because of their refusals and terminations make it difficult for a researcher to make definite conclusions and accuracy of results is also under a question.
On obtaining data in the course of the study, the researchers should focus on the analysis of the collected data. Basically, the analysis involves the data collected by the researcher, which the researcher should test and verify to define their accuracy and reliability. At the same time, at the stage of the analysis, researchers should consider possible limitations of the study. In such a way, they will be able to find out weaknesses and drawbacks of their study as well as they will be able to assess the accuracy, reliability and validity of their study’s results. The analysis helps to make basic conclusions and reveal the major findings of the study, which researchers should test and note. The analysis of the results of the study leads to the approval or denial the hypothesis made by researchers in the beginning of their study and to the further development of the study for new implications for further studies may be revealed. In such a way, researchers can make their conclusions and give insights toward further studies.
Reporting is the final stage of the research design, when researchers just collect the information and their findings made in the course of the study and make the report, which mirrors the development, context, and findings of the study, along with the discussion of major issues related to the study and revealed in the course of the study. Reporting is formal and uses the information available to researchers from the study conducted. The style of reporting should be accurate and easy to perceive. In this regard, researchers may use visualization, including tables and graphs, which help to perceive their findings and the entire study effectively and easy.
Thus, taking into account all above mentioned, it is important to place emphasis on the fact that the research design should focus on the four stages discussed above. Each stage is extremely important for the positive results of the study. In this regard, researchers should develop the clear and accurate plan of the research and research design, on the ground of which they can conduct their study and to complete it successfully.
Blanchard, K. & Bowles, S. (1993). Raving fans: A revolutionary approach to customer service. New York: Morrow.
Gilovich, Thomas et al. (eds.) (2002). Heuristics and Biases: The Psychology of Intuitive Judgment. New York: Routeldge.
Hesselbein, F., Goldsmith, M., & Beckhard, R. (Eds.). (1997). The Organization of The Future. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.
Litwack, T.R. (1993). “On the ethics of dangerousness assessments”ť, Law and Human Behavior, 17, 479-85.
Peters, Philip G., Jr. (1999). “Hindsight Bias and Tort Liability: Avoiding Premature Conclusions”ť, ARIZ. ST. L.J. 1277, 1299-1313.
Posner, Richard A. (1998). “Rational Choice, Behavioral Economics, and the Law”ť, STAN. L. REV. 1551, 1570-71.
Rachlinski, Jeffrey J. (2000). “The “New”ť Law and Psychology: A Reply to Critics, Skeptics, and Cautious Supporters”ť, CORNELL L. REV. 739.
Rhoton, J. & K. E. Stiles. (2002). “Exploring the Professional Development Design Process: Bringing an Abstract Framework into Practice.”ť Science Educator, 11(1), p.1-14.
Whitcomb, J., Borko, H. & D. Liston. (2009). “Growing Talent: Promising Professional Development Models and Practices.”ť Journal of Teacher Education, 60(3), p.207-219.