1) “Prolonged highly political decisions processes is likely when decisions involve important and complex problems for which no ready made good solutions are available, when many affected parties have conflicting interest and when a diffusion of power exists among the parties”¯. Discuss and provide three words which could help identify effective leadership.
It is known that leadership plays an important role in the work of any manager who should make a great deal of various decisions. Usually many people are involved in the process of making important decisions in the organization. Any manager should consult with subordinates, superiors and other managers when he should make an important decision. It is clear that different people represent different solutions of the problem. Sometimes it is very difficult to reach agreement concerning a good solution of the problem. In this case managers who are involved in “the prolonged highly political decision process”¯ face numerous problems such as delays and interruptions due to revisions and crises. Such decision process may last several months or even years. If decision is connected with significant changes in the strategies and policies of the organization, the manager’s role will be very important. In this case, any manager should use his skills and experience and should be persistent in making major decision.
Of course, it is necessary to avoid confusion and disorder, emotional shock and anxiety, panic reactions of different decision groups and vacillation between various choices. (Yukl 81)
Effective leadership can be identified by the following words:
It is very important for any manager to be a good leader and the above mentioned characteristics will help him to perform his duties in a proper way.
2) What is meant by role conflict? How can it be reduced and to what extent is it inevitable?
Role conflict is a situation when an individual plays several roles simultaneously but these roles are not compatible with each other. Role conflict stands for disagreement of two different roles and has a negative effect on the group in this or that organization.
It is necessary for the manager to reconcile the expectations of conflicting roles and to have quick response to all the expectations of his superior. Role conflicts can be reduced if any member of the group expects an appropriate behavior from other member and that each member of the group performs his role. It is very important to note that role conflicts are inevitable in organization where each member has a great deal of responsibilities. In order to reduce the tension of role conflicts in the organization, it is necessary to use open communication which will help to avoid serious problems. Interpersonal negotiations will make it possible to reduce role conflict to a great extent. Besides, all the members of the group should know that this or that manager has a lot of different roles to perform. There are several types of role conflict:
”¢ inter-sender role conflict when different pressures from one member of the group in the organization are not not compatible.
”¢ intra-sender role conflict when pressure from one role sender in the group opposes pressure from other role sender.
”¢ inter-role conflict which includes role pressure of members from one group with the members from other group.
”¢ person-role conflict when the requirements of one individual are not compatible with the other individual’s values, behavior and views. (Hellrieger & Slocum 323)
It is practically impossible to avoid role conflicts in the organization but certain actions should be implemented to reduce the tension of any role conflict, namely negotiations, open and kind communication, trust-based relations and mutual understanding.
Yukl, G. (2010) Leadership in Organizations. Global Edition (7 Edition). Upper Saddle River, New Jersey, Pearson Prentice-Hall Inc.
Hellrieger, D. & Slocum, J.W. (2007) Organizational Behavior: Managing Interpersonal Conflict and Negotiation. 10-th Edition. USA. South-Western.