Depending on the area of ĒčĒčknowledge it is possible to name technological knowledge (knowledge about technology to create the product), market knowledge (about the groups of consumers, pricing, methods of product promotion, etc.) and macroeconomic knowledge (about the trends in currency exchange rates, foreign economic trends, prospects for increased domestic¬†demand, etc.) It is also necessary to distinguish between individual and group knowledge.¬†The traditional view is based on the fact that knowledge belongs to the individual, and the group is just a simple sum of the members of this group, so that group knowledge is the sum of their knowledge.¬† But¬†there¬†is another, modern¬†point of view,¬†according to which a group¬†of people¬†forms a team – a new¬†entity with¬†its unique¬†characteristics.¬†Under this¬†view, we can¬†talk about¬†group¬†behavior and¬†group¬†knowledge, as well as knowledge management.¬†Thus,¬†knowledge can be¬†not only individual,¬†but¬†of a group of people. (Liebowitz 1999)
B.¬†Gates,¬†in his book “Business @ the Speed¬†ĒčĒčof Thought”¬†writes about the¬†need to improve the¬†predictive¬†capacity of the organization,¬†or corporate¬†intelligence quotient (IQ).¬†However, he¬†has in mind not¬†only the number of¬†smart¬†employees, but also¬†the accumulation of¬†knowledge in the¬†company and the¬†free flow of information, which allows employees¬†to enjoy¬†each other’s¬†ideas.¬†The ultimate¬†goal of a¬†high¬†corporate¬†IQ is¬†that the¬†group could¬†develop¬†ideas and¬†implement them¬†as effectively¬†as a one man, concentrating¬†their forces¬†on solving¬†the problem.¬†“When¬†recruited¬†a critical mass of¬†people with high¬†IQ,¬†working¬†hand in hand¬†with each other, the potential of¬†the company¬†simply¬†flies¬†up to heaven.¬†This mutual¬†stimulation¬†generates¬†a lot of new ideas and¬†promotes¬†the exit¬†of less experienced¬†employees at¬†the highest levels of¬†skill. The company¬†as a whole¬†begins to work¬†better.” (Gates B. 1999)
However,¬†knowledge¬†alone¬†can not solve¬†all the problems¬†of effective¬†organization. Thus,¬†there¬†may be present¬†quite¬†advanced understanding¬†of activities of individual¬†employees, knowledge about the¬†prospects,¬†of the¬†factors¬†(“know why”).¬†At the same time¬†without proper¬†motivation¬†it is difficult to¬†expect a¬†high return on¬†such knowledge.¬†Construction of¬†new knowledge¬†is a comprehensive, interactive¬†and non-linear¬†process.¬†Professional managers¬†must act¬†on all levels¬†to create¬†new knowledge:¬†cognitive,¬†advanced, system integration,¬†creative¬†and intuitive¬†–¬†and therefore¬†to manage knowledge through¬†training, incentives,¬†appropriate organizational¬†structures, control of the¬†results.
Some researchers, including Stonehouse G. (1999), pointed out ¬†a separate group of organizational knowledge. Organizational knowledge is a distributed set of principles, facts, skills, rules that provide information and decision-making processes, behavior and actions within the organization.¬†Organizational knowledge is developed based on the knowledge of everyone in the organization. (Stonehouse¬†1999)