1. The need of further research of the young males’ reproductive health
Marcell et al. (2008) argues that many studies of male adolescents’ health needs are way too old (some of them even more than 30 years old) and concentrated on young men (aged 15 to 19) and in addition these studies do not provide analysis of young men’s reproductive health needs. Taking into account the consideration how important of male adolescents’ health reproductive needs, they have to be paid more attention.
2. Sexuality, risky behaviour, STIs, and HIV/AIDS rates among young males
Park and Breland (2007) indicate that sexual and reproductive health and males’ health care attract increased attention in the recent years. Sexuality and sexual identity are extremely important aspects for males. Despite the fact that men’s sexual health is more likely to be improved in the adult age, Park and Breland (2007) remind that ”˜rates of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) remain high and disparities persist’. Additionally it has to be noted that some groups of young males, for example, young African American men, are known as having higher rates of risky behaviour, STIs, and HIV/AIDS.
Clinical care, education, and improved access to services are the strategies that have to be applied towards young males in order to decrease the rates of sexually transmitted infections among them. It is clear that all groups of males, including homosexual youth, have to be the target audience of such strategy.
Nikula et al. (2009) presents the study that specifically targets young men (18”“25 years). The study is designed for research of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) among the youth in Europe. As a result, author revealed that every country has its own socio-demographic patterning for sexual behaviour. (Nikula et al, 2009)
According to Lewis (2004), men’s sexual health is extremely important subject of research. This researcher notes that ”˜males in general are often perceived as having less interest than women in taking care of their own health, and in general use services less.’ (Lewis, 2004)
3. Alcohol and drugs abuses among young males
Young males are more likely to suffer from alcohol and drugs abuse than other social groups. Royster (2006) indicates that substance abuse is particularly serious problem among the males that has less education: ”˜focus group participants with fewer educational and financial resources discussed drug-infested communities, economic barriers, crime, lack of affordable health insurance, and perceived discrimination in health care encounters. Participants with more formal education and more financial resources expressed concerns about managed care and chronic diseases. These results demonstrate the importance of male gender socialization in the health of African American men.’ (Royster, 2006)
The study made by Royster (2006) shown that men of these groups who suffer from substance abuse of often live in low-income communities or had personal histories of substance abuse. (Royster, 2006)
Alcoholism is a disease as it has an identifiable cluster of symptoms predictive of a course and outcome. It is not an infectious disease or one in which cells multiply wildly. Rather it is the result of a bio-psychosocial process. Environmental factors, such as availability of alcohol,Â socialÂ acceptance of drinking and drunkenness and peer pressure to drink play a decided role. But its primary root appears to be biological.Â The community-based approach toÂ socialÂ marketingÂ can be offered as the effective method of Â changing the patterns of behaviour of those young males who suffer from the substance use. Usage of cognitiveÂ techniques of the social marketing may prove to be very effective. The people who use substances will be shown the negative results of such using.
Courtenay (2004) confirms that healthy social norms may be formed by the social marketing campaign. Research indicates that when people’s perceived norm is challenged with evidence of the actual norm, the unhealthy behaviour often decreases .