Terror has its myriads of reasons to exist and develop. The most frightening thing is when the roots of terrorism grow from the hearts, not from minds of people who devote their lives to criminal actions and never realize they are doing something wrong. Another thing is when terrorism is conducted through absolutely legal tools, and that is probably even more serious issue, worth of careful attention and examination by specialists. More and more often now the focus is shifted from the actions of extremists to the actions of governments, which lead to hidden threat. Democracy is agonizing when civil rights and liberties are violated in front of the blind nation, suffering from constant informational attacks and the so-called state terrorism.
LEGAL TOOLS AVAILABLE AT THE LOCAL LEVEL TO EXPLOIT TERRORIST ACTIVITIES
“’War on terror’ is a misnomer. It would be like calling America’s involvement in World War II a ‘war on kamikazism.’ Terrorism, like kamikazism, is a tactic,”¯ Dinesh D’Souza, an Indian public speaker once noted. It goes without saying that terrorist actions do not appear suddenly, by someone’s unexpected insight. Actually, terrorism is a tactic that is built on the solid fundament of its inner complex philosophy. There are certainly a number of reasons for terrorism to live so long and escape diminishing, and these reasons, when adequately understood, first of all, and only then properly treated, may make the scale of terrorism reduce visibly. That is only a hypothesis, but this is clearly an issue worth of careful attention which does not close up in leading a war against terrorism. As D’Souza has remarkably stated, this word combination is already a kind of nonsense. In short, “the war against terrorism is terrorism,”¯ as another witty man, Woody Harrelson, this time an American actor, firmly asserted. Definitely, the way for terrorism tends to be cleaned by those who are the first to shout against it. To work out sound mechanisms for combating terrorism, its nature should be first of all comprehended. When one realizes the sense, routes, and ways of terrorism; when one is able to see its attractiveness for the participants and when the threat for the victims is evaluated according to reality, not to hyperbolized images of power authorities and mass media, this problem may become a simple mathematical task for a primary school. However, these steps are not as easy to take as it may seem. This paper is only a trifling attempt to make a contribution to the efforts taken by public throughout the world striving for the victory of democracy and peace on the planet.
Terrorism as a Human Need
What does terrorism start from? “Terrorism is a real despair. These are people for whom life has been so negative that they’re willing to die if they can take down some of their enemies,”¯ John Shelby Spong considers. It would be too simple, however, if terrorism would be a kind of a tool to revenge or to make somebody suffer. Terrorism is first of all an ideology, and to understand how it works it is necessary to investigate terrorists’ motivations.
The reasons found on the surface can barely clear the picture. Terroristic organizations work for definite goals, including a desire to undermine state control, to oppose to the ruling political force, to make society more just or to polarize the population and so on (Chomsky 1988, p. 226). And the main motive idea for their managers is obviously to gain money first and foremost. But that is not enough, of course. There is probably something more that makes people voluntarily join such organizations. They may even themselves believe they are driven by religious or political convictions, they may know for certain they are right and their actions are not evil. But in any way, all their justifications will be only a mask for their inner needs. The main driving need, as the latest studies demonstrate, is simply the need for the sense of belonging, commitment and integration. “Individual terrorists tend to be motivated more by a desire for social solidarity with other members of their organization than by political platforms or strategic objectives, which are often murky and undefined,”¯ Hoffman (1998, p. 93) explains. Sometimes it may really be despair, as Spong sees it. But in fact, these needs are basic human needs, and no one can put the blame on a person for them. A horse of a different color is the circumstances one exists and struggles in. What is this struggle for or against? Probably, this is first of all a struggle against loneliness and struggle for acceptance. Following the ideas proposed by terroristic organization, one may feel he or she is doing something really essential, if these ideas coincide or are at least close to the beliefs of a person. Terroristic leaders are not only wicked; they are also sly and artful, and they know how to utilize human weaknesses for their own benefit. “A spirit of belonging, unity and interdependence based on mutual trust and respect to create socially responsible environments that challenge all of us to listen, to learn, to change, and to serve”¯ ”“ this is how the core value of community is defended by the Saint Leo University (Taylor 2006, p. 19). Not much expertise is needed to see how much in common Catholic and terroristic institutions possess. The members of terroristic organizations are taught to develop their character. They are inspired by the idea of responsible leadership and excellence, but most of them tend to be blind pawns manipulated by their leaders who only aim at political and ideological dominance achieved through deterrence and social mistrust.