Cheating exists probably as long as humanity exists. It was discussed by ancient philosophers and in it in the Bible”¦ Life is evolving, moving forward, and cheatings still accompany our lives, making a lot of trouble: it is very unpleasant to feel betrayed by someone.
People lie for something, or because of something: to satisfy the vanity, so that other people could pay attention at them, to distinguish themselves, for other material considerations, in order to deceive someone or get a benefit for themselves. Lie of a person can be generated by selfish motives and aims, for example, to achieve personal welfare at the expense of other people: such lie is censured by society. The lie can be attributed to noble motives (for example, lies of a doctor to seriously ill man) and in such a situation is recognized morally justified. It is sounds ironically, but the man can not live without lies and cheating. Indeed, the society requires a certain proportion of secrecy and lies. It puts us all in such conditions that absolute sincerity is almost unthinkable. None of us shows himself for what he is: there is, as it is called, a special public mask, which everyone should wear. It is necessary because we have a lot of feelings that we should not express, however, not shocking, not irritating or offending the people around us.
“The trouble compelled to lie even honest people”¯ – says Publius Syrus. “Better a lie that benefit than the truth that brings strife”¯ – says the Uygur proverb. A “lie, aimed to good purpose, better than the truth, that leads to enmity”¯ – so says the Tajik folk wisdom. In Syria you can find a saying that it is better to “tell a lie that is like the truth than the truth that is like a lie.”¯ “If there were no lie, there were no truth”¯, and “clever lie better than stupid truth”¯ – can be heard in Russian proverbs (Johnson 16-22).
As mentioned earlier, a lot of authors who devoted their works to the phenomenology of lies, agree that lying and deception can be attributed to almost all spheres of human activity. Professor D. Dubrovsky, author of the monograph “Deception”¯, argues that deception is a means of protection and promotion of interests of individuals and groups, classes, nations and states. Fraud can also be regarded as a function of a social institution (public agency, agencies, public organizations, etc.). Cheating can be one of the manifestations of social contradictions, expressing selfish isolation, competition, and all sorts of ways to achieve their interests and goals at the expense of others or against the wishes of others. “One of the most important social functions of deception is that he is able to provide the ability to save cash communicative structures in terms of divergent or nearly incompatible interests.”¯
Scientists acknowledge the existence of a lie as a communicative, informational, social and personal phenomenon (Bell 36).
Understanding and classification of such socio-psychological phenomena, as lies, deception, untruth, will vary significantly depending on the approach with which we can regard them. For example, if we explore the lie and deception from moral and ethical positions, we can identify a malicious deception and virtuous. In the communicative approach, where you can go to the deception as to the transfer of false information, you can make a clean lie, half-truths and lies silent. Deception, as a lie is used when someone interests are facing and moral standards, and where it is difficult or impossible to achieve the desired result by other means (Bowyer 101-106).
We can consider several forms of lie:
– Silence or concealment of real information. For example, when the doctor does not inform the patient that he is fatally ill, or when the husband does not tell his wife that the lunch hours he spends in the apartment of her friend.
Quite often, only part of the information is told, the rest is not. This method defaults to call “partial coverage of submitting material. As an example of such situation imagine: a manufacturer of juice writes on the packaging of his product “100% natural orange juice”¯, of course, the buyer understands this as a statement of fact that is a pure juice, not diluted with water. However, the manufacturer assumes that this is just orange juice, but not a mixture of different juices, but presenting this information so that it goes in their favor. And on the back of pack in small print it is added recovered from the concentrated juice.
– The distortion of the real information is what we used to call a lie. When we, instead of getting a real information get deception, giving it for the truth, we get mislead. We meet this lie every day, and it is the most dangerous and most unjustified lie.
– Truth information in the form of deception. A person tells the truth so that his listener gets the impression that he is lying, and the true information is not accepted.
– Special lie. Very often the person who lies, does not consider himself a liar, because he believes in what he says, and that is why here we can’t find any features of lie. He does it unconsciously, without knowing why, and for what.
Usually all people lie this way about everything, but there is nearly no bad effect. It is it used in order to make an impression on others. This is an exaggeration of the facts, using the true story that happened to other people as it happened to the teller. To expose such a liar is possible because as time passes, he forgets about what was said and starts to contradict himself (Sarasin 22-29).
If to talk about teenagers, so their reasons of lie and cheating are:
1. The desire to have their personal lives. The desire to protect their privacy against someone’s intervention (even if someone – their own parents) is one of the most common reasons why teenagers lie. In fact, adults deceive children using the same reason, but the child doesn’t get this right often.
2. The purpose of lies – to earn authority. Sometimes teenagers remain fantasy-proneness, which is usual for little children. They come up with improbable stories, in which they play the main role. As they get older, this kind of lie disappears itself, but if there is a need in it, it reborn. Because the need of self-assertion is strongly expressed at this age, especially among their peers, so some of the teenagers constantly embellish reality, and sometimes openly lie to gain authority, to look more favorably in the eyes of others. So at home they have to lie also (Cizek 203-208).
3. Fear of punishment. Lying as a means of protection is most common in families where children are punished for the slightest misdemeanor. So, if the child starts to lie, it is worth to think about it, ay be he is afraid of you. So may be he simply defending itself?
4. Lack of parental attention. The falsity of the child occurs as a defensive reaction to their own life problems.
Typically, these teenagers at the request of the psychologist to show their own place on the scale of good and bad people pose a very low mark. Not always turns out that this applies only to “troubled”¯ teens. Very often, children from good families suffer from lack of attention of mother and father that also forces them to tell at school sometimes incredible stories about parents (more often – about fathers).
5. Cheating to help a friend. It is just the way of cheating for good intentions. Parents, demanding, for example, to tell a violator of discipline in the classroom, forget that at the previous week taught their child to be a real friend.
6. Lies of fun. This is a clear manifestation of mythomania – an irresistible need of lies, deception, hoaxes around. Such children like the process and the fact of telling lie and of cheating (Cizek 203-208, Neuman 82-98).
We looked through the reasons why children usually cheat, but grown-up people also use these reasons, even though there is much more reasons for grown-ups. We meet cheating everywhere: in private life, business, work in a store, on television, radio, using the different services. Here are examples of some types of cheating:
1) Cheating in business.
According to the ACFE, the average company loses about 6% of revenues due to misconduct of the staff, 90% of cases of corporate cheating are repeated throughout the world regardless of the legal environment and cultural characteristics (Weinstein 74-89).
Cheating is the inevitable consequence of business. Identified losses are comparatively small, but this is the top of the iceberg. Most of frauds are detected by chance, rather than through a system of risk management. Research has shown that the bulk of corporate crimes are committed in the financial departments. Also higher risks of fraud have departments of supply and sales. And almost all the cases were not one-time, only 15% of cheaters made it the first time when they were caught.
Corporate crime can be divided into two main types: the withdrawal of assets and manipulation of financial reporting.
Manipulation of financial reporting have led to scandals in the United States, in a result of what several large companies, such as energy giant Enron (income over the last year of existence was more than $ 20 billion), telecommunications company Global Crossing and Quest Communications, operator of cable television company Adelphia , Xerox, pharmaceutical giant Merck, WorldCom (the company’s assets were estimated at 92 billion dollars), accounting firm Arthur Anderssen and others went bankrupt (Weinstein 74-89, Brittan 13-22).
Cheatings affect morale atmosphere, relationships with customers and the price of the company. After a series of scandals involving accounting sphere of the level of trust to large companies has fallen. According to surveys of CNN Channel, the newspaper USA Today and Gallup service in 2002, only 20% of Americans trust large companies. This is the lowest level of confidence since 1981. For comparison, in 2001 it was 28%, in 2000 – 29% in 1999 – 30%.
2) Cheating in Internet.
Now the Internet is full of various methods of fraud, scams and deceptions. World Wide Web has become a good tool for any kind of cheaters (Pfitzenmaier 203-213).
Profile Magazine reviewed the different methods of cheating, siphoning off money from people. People can be cheated using Internet, mobile telephony, advertising and email system, and regular mail. We find a lot of letters from different companies advertising their products and offer their services in mailbox often. Here is one example of cheating: people get the message to their email box that they are the winners of some contest. After a proposal to take the prize in the amount of $ 1000 there is a small addition: “To get the prize pay a fee in amount of $ 50. Within 48 hours after payment to their e-mail will be sent an instruction how to get the money”¯. At the end of the message people see a bill with details of some companies that they should use to send the money. As it turns out, it is a fraud, and people get nothing, just lose money (Pfitzenmaier 203-213, Consalvo 126-135).
The next type of cheating is fraud with anti-virus programs. It happens this way: to the victim’s computer Ā some viruses are loaded. Then a message that offers to treat the computer appears, and requires sending paid message from the phone. According to antivirus company Agnitum, there are currently more than 250 known fake antivirus programs, most of which are malicious.
One of the big problems of cheatings in Internet is spam. Last year the proportion of spam has increased from 11% to 18, 2%. Fraudsters also invent new ways of cheating and defrauding money from gullible Internet users (Cappo 213-233).
3) Cheating in the field of telephone services. According to statistics, the world’s telephone operators lose from different types of fraud 2.6% of their total traffic, cellular operators are losing every year about 25 billion dollars.
Here are some of the ways of fraud, which is now the most common.
A). Call me. In Japan it is called wan-giri (“one call””¯). Alleged victim of cheating gets a short call that is quickly dumped, without waiting for an answer. Of course, many people, because of their curiosity, call back, not suspecting that the call is “paid”¯.
There is also some other was of cheating using phone. It is when clients get a call from the operator who proposes new services. For example, operator offers: “Call this number and get $3 to your account”¯. People call and sometimes really get the money they were promised, but the price of the call they made costs $ 5-10 (Cappo 213-233, Guerrero 302-303).
Sometimes fraudsters even imitate the call-center operators, calling “their customers”¯ agitating them to get more profitable rate. Cheaters tell people to send a paid message to a certain number, or buy a card payment to replenish your account. And although according to surveys, only 5% of people are conducted in such a ruse, yet the amount obtained by fraud is quite decent.
B). Call from a radio station.
So far in the province this kind of cheating is still popular. Usually a person gets a message to his phone with information that according to the radio station raffle, the listener won the phone, laptop or even a car. Sometimes information is reported by the joyful voice of a young girl-operator. Ā Further the listener is proposed, as usual, to send message, or call for a certain number. So the aim of cheaters is money. Some radio stations had even tried to prevent the audience from this type of fraud.
The same thing happens in trading mobile content. There is extremely difficult to catch a crook. Although their ads throughout the Internet. Usually, for the money Ā subscriber sent to get a picture or music file he gets nothing or may be questionable content to mp3-file downloaded for just somewhere on the Internet (Sawvel 46-58).
4) Cheating in the marriage field. Marriage fraudsters use a close relationship for the benefit, but we all know that to condemn the marriage swindler very difficult, because it is very difficult to prove that he had a selfish motive. After all, people tend to live together and the victim of a marriage swindler she voluntarily gives him money or other valuables. Therefore, opportunities to regain things that were captured by thief are very little. Also people should be careful with marriage agencies.
5) Cheating by healers. Healing is different. There is harmless healing, when healers-cheaters and wizards offer omens, lapels, damage to withdraw, the husband-wife back and stuff. We read in the newspaper and just smile. But these days fewer people believe in wizards.
But healing can be also dangerous, even very dangerous. Because people have always believed that if there is disease, it can be cured. So healers-cheaters foraged on the last desperate hope. We can find a lot of ads ”“ “cure from any disease quickly and cheaply”¯. Texts are short, but go straight to the people’s eye. These ads can be picked every morning. Useless charlatans earn money like this. The worst thing is that many people who lost hope really ask charlatans. for a help. Charlatans earn money on someone else’s grief (Trevor 187-196).
6) We can also meet with cheating while buying a used car. The modern automobile boom has affected not only the market of new cars, but used cars also. In order not to be cheated, we must be careful choosing a method of getting a car. This may be a traditional market, internet sites, advertisements in specialized magazines, car dealers selling second-hand or working on the system trade-in. Recommendations of friends also should be used.
Before you decide to buy a car, you should better find out who offers a car: directly by the owner or his representative. Powers of representative of the owner should be performed in accordance with the law. So ask if they have these documents (Currie 34-36).
Next, make sure that the car that is sold is not stolen, but really belongs to the seller. To do this you need to check necessary documents. The fact of buying a car should be prescribed by law. Do not forget to check the identification numbers. With their help, you can find out the real year of manufacture, modification, operation of the continent.
Keep in mind that different brands of cars have different location of these numbers and meaning of symbols can vary greatly. If something looks suspicious, better not to buy the car.
7) Cheating of insurance companies by motorists. Sociologists in the UK survey found that most motorists deceive an insurance company if it is in their interest. Only 18% of respondents will tell, for example, that a stolen car was not locked.
The survey participants were asked the question: “What would you tell your insurance company, if your car was stolen because you have forgotten to lock it?”¯ Only 18% of respondents agreed to tell the whole truth, and 41% of respondents would hide the real reason for what happened. Another 26% of motorists said they would not have admitted in their own negligence until they feel a strong pressure from the insurer. And 8% decided to hide the truth in any case. And only 7% of respondents did not know how they would behave. This fact proves that people cheat often (Cizek 145-160).
8) Cheating on television. There are also many ways in which television earns money through TV programs. Do you remember, these shows, in which viewer should vote for members of any show by sending paid message, or guess the word, call and win a prize?
All the recent years were covered by interactive television. This is when the viewer can influence the programming policy of channels to express opinion about various programs and events in the country. A call to the studio, telephone voting have become an integral part of many political programs.
But television would not be what it is, if it used the contact with the audience in disinterested purposes. Having magical power over the minds of its audience, television actively deceives it. It’s like in the case of gypsies. The police always warn not to make contact with them. Once you answer an innocent question of a fortune-teller, for example, tell her the time and then you can be sure that your wallet will be empty.
The easiest way to withdrawal money from the viewer is voting using messages. In fact, it is pleasant for the viewer to influence the fate of participants of any show by dialing the number showed on the screen. The call will cost a certain amount for sure (Bowyer 107-109).
People who take an active part in the voting sometimes unpleasantly surprised with the fact that their money rapidly disappeared from the phone bill. Then they realize that it was a special message for that and they have to pay a special price. But viewer of the show does not think about where and to whom he sends his money. There are a lot of such voters: hundreds of thousands, or may be even millions. And that means that television costs millions of dollars.
The money collected from the huge number of viewers is divided by agreement between mobile operators, TV channel, a broadcaster and content provider. Revenues from such a vote, of course, concede to advertising, but we could be talking about millions of dollars (Bell 40-46).
Just come up with television and many other ways of defrauding money from a TV viewer. There is transmission, which conducted the quiz. For example, viewers are showed a part from the famous film and the viewer needs to remember what color was the dress was of the main actress in the next scene. If you remember, you get money. As the question is very easy, so many people call, but the price that they pay for the phone call is sometimes even bigger that the money they win in this program.
There are also quizzes, where the viewer is offered to make the word of the proposed letter. Assignment is simple, but for the call you again pay a lot of money (Callahan 58-64).
The problem is that the most part of the views of such shows are young people. They can send messages every day, sometimes even more often. But at the end of the month their parents see bills for phone companies and get angry.
Sometimes it is even written on TV-screen “please match your call to somebody who pays for it”¯, but young people don’t pay attention.
9) Cheating in relationships, in personal life. Approximately one fifth of the surveyed men and women (22%) at least once chattered their partner. This rating is significantly higher among married men. The survey was conducted using English-language resources on the Internet, and more than a million of people took part of it.
Even the fact that people spent years together doesn’t stop them from betrayal. Moreover, married people with children, including women with babies, cheat as often as couples who have no children.
Among couples who are married, 44% of men and 36% of women at least once cheated his spouse. The fact that society condemns infidelity and cheating does not stop most of the people (Sarasin 26-29).
Six out of 10 people who cheated his partner believe that none guesses about their infidelities, only one out of ten respondents thought that it might be suspected. But even when one is confronted with the fact that he was suspected only 6% of men and women confessed to treason.
One of the reasons why people cheat in his personal life is the thirst for diversity. Many people like the feeling that they get while cheating (about 30% of respondents). However, men and women cheat, guided by different desires. Men want sex (44%), greater satisfaction in sex (38%), diversity (40%). “Women are cheating, seeking attention (40%) to confirm their sexual attractiveness (33%) or fall in love with someone else (20%).
While women tend to change only once, men usually cheat regularly. The difference in views on the betrayal of men and women is expressed in different ways. Women are most sensitive to the fact that their partner fell in love with someone else than the fact that he had sexual contact with someone else. Men, by contrast, seem to feel more painful when their darling had sex with another man (Sarasin 26-29, Cappo 222-231).
Without doubt infidelity is a serious problem that often leads to rupture relations. 19% of people who were cheated finished their relationship immediately, 22% finished it after a while, because they were unable to overcome offense.
Those who go on treason are looking for something new in their lives. Something or someone they don’t satisfy, both physically and spiritually. Therefore, one way out – look for satisfaction on the side, among others (Trevor 189-193, Cappo 222-231).
Women often believe that if a man goes, it goes to a young and beautiful lady “for obvious reasons.”¯ Reality, however, said that many men go to the one who looks inferior to their wives. But she saw in him a man, and his wife saw only her property, which is thoroughly washed our clothes and fed. The wife can not understand how her husband could be so ungrateful, hopes that he will soon repent and return. Of course, the are many reasons for infidelity, but, summing up, we can say that a man is nearly pushed for this move because his marriage is dull and monotonous, and the wife is reluctant to close, considering it a necessary but burdensome responsibility. She may also go to the betrayal of revenge, because she is hurt.
In the men’s infidelity, if he is older than forty we can see his struggle against the fact that he is getting old and somehow justify it. Middle-aged men straggle against the stagnation in their careers, a growing belly, graying hair and aging, against the boring lifestyle and predictability, routine of his marriage, often to the discomfort and depression occurring at this time, blame the family or a wife. And then if he gets an affair with another woman (especially if younger), this is the way to create some interest in his life, to feel young again, to make up for missed opportunities for sexual adventures and to try everything that comes into his head, sexually experiment, escape from depression. Therefore, even men who had remained loyal during this period can go for love affair. It is true that love affairs at this time can be dangerous, because a sense of regained youth and the excitement that accompanies these love affairs are made for love or your life as it should be.
There are many reasons for infidelity of younger men. For example, casual relationships are often the result of bad faith and sexual arousal: a man is away from his wife, meets an attractive woman, and this chance encounter excites him far more than the legal relationship. The affair makes him feel full of vitality (Neuman 93-96).
Typically, love affair starts in order to satisfy some unmet need: for example, emotional such as a desire to feel loved in a new way; sex: if a sexual relationship with his wife is poor, monotonous, so men start to look for new feelings. Sexual dysfunction can induce a man to rush from woman to woman in search of that lady, who will help him to cure impotence.
So, if to make a little conclusion, I can say that our imperfect being truly permeated with lies, cheatings and deceit.
People cheat each other in personal relationships, while trying to get the desired benefits, people are cheating in trade, lie in advertising, bluffing and silent in the media, cunning and cheating in politics, rob each other in all spheres of life, using lies as guns, they are cheating in the production and manufacturing. People lie to others and to themselves, lie maliciously, and virtuous, invent boredom, flood flows lies past, present and future (Currie 36-38, Sawvel 50-51).
In general, we can be sure that lies, deception and false ineradicable: they are the inevitable socio-psychological components of human life in society. Therefore, any attempts to exclude them from our lives are utopian, psychologically wrong and futile, but we still can try, and should start with ourselves.