The development of new technologies contributed to the progress in different fields. At the same time, the development of new technologies is often accompanied by the appearance of numerous problems and moral issues which slow down the development of new technologies. In this respect, the development of cloning is particularly noteworthy because due to the development of the contemporary science there are ample opportunities for the progress of this field of science, but the experiments in cloning encounter a strong opposition from the part of the public because of moral issues. However, there are also scientific arguments concerning the necessity and usefulness of the wide application of cloning because along with optimistic views on cloning as the panacea from numerous diseases, including incurable, for instance, there are also pessimistic views, according to which the human technologies are too imperfect and cloning may be really dangerous.
First of all, it should be said that such contradicting views on cloning are determined by the potential and threats hidden in cloning. Many supporters of cloning (Pence, 112) argue that it is necessary to develop cloning because it opens larger opportunities for the contemporary medicine. For instance, the use of stem cells may be very effective in treatment of numerous diseases, which are nowadays considered to be incurable. On the other hand, the opponents of cloning, especially human (Pence, 204) argue that the creation of stem cells inevitably leads to the destruction of human embryo. In this respect, the problem of morality of cloning and ethical issues related to this problem clearly arises.
At the same time, it is necessary to remember about the fact that cloning is really a very complicated process. Even the contemporary science is hardly able to guarantee a one hundred percent success of cloning. In actuality, this means that in the process of cloning humans are simply playing God in their attempt to create either living beings, like clones of sheep or other animals, or stem cells. However, this process is really risky because its outcomes are practically unpredictable while the costs of cloning cannot always outweigh its benefits. For instance, in cloning Dolly, 277 eggs were used, only 30 started to divide, nine induced pregnancy, and only one survived to term (Vogel, 641). This fact proves the extent to which the modern technologies of cloning are far from perfect. In addition, specialists underline (Ehrenfeld, 725) that the results of cloning are unpredictable and the life of clones is under a threat because of their inability to survive and their high susceptibility to numerous health problems. In other words, the experiments with animals revealed the fact that clones cannot be equal to naturally born living beings in their health and survivability. At any rate, the need and purpose of cloning of living beings are unclear because any human or other living being is able to reproduction.
On the other hand, the current efforts to develop cloning resemble the experiments of Frankenstein who created a living being artificially. In fact, this fiction may become a severe reality in case of the failure of experiments with cloning. Obviously, cloning implies the play with the life and death of living organisms and the failure of a researcher means the death of a potential living being, while the low percentage of successful cloning, as data concerning Dolly show, reveal the fact that the creation of beings similar to the one created by Frankenstein is highly probable.
Consequently, the experiment of Frankenstein should be viewed as a warning to contemporary scientist who should foresee the outcome of their experiments in order to avoid the fate of the creature of Frankenstein, who is unable to survive in the world and is rejected by all people, including the creator. Even though the creature was “nourished with high thoughts of honor and devotion”ť it has degraded to the “meanest animal”ť (Shelly, 213) being abandoned by its creator and other people.