Rene Descartes (1596-1650) is generally known as the founder of modern philosophy. Descartes was schooled in the scholastic philosophy and it took its base in the philosophy of Ancient Greece. Descartes made an attempt to uncover an interesting new foundation for rational knowledge. I would like to talk about the first rule of Descartes method and explain Descartes Methodic Doubt with necessary details.
First of all it is necessary to explain the meaning of the notion “method”¯ and then to continue our discussion. The word “method” (methodos) came from the Greek words “meta” that means the movement and “hodos” that means the way. Thus, the word “method” means that a certain goal could be achieved through the movement along the specific way. Basing on above stated definition we could connect it with Descartes findings and we see that the method developed by Rene Descartes was based on the geometry’s model. A set of axioms were taking for the base and then logic and reason were used with the purpose of truth disclosure.
Anscombe stated that “Rene Descartes in his work Discourse on the Method of Rightly Conducting the Reason, and Seeking Truth in the Sciences, sought for “clear and certain knowledge of all that is useful in life.”¯ (Anscombe, 1966)
This work, was written in precise language, replete with remarks in which imprinted the author’s rich experience, knowledge about society, about the people and their behaviour. “Discourse” succinctly and eloquently describes the history of scientific development philosophy, principles and method of Descartes’ teaching. According to Descartes we could read the next words: “”¦ I thought that some other method [beside that of logic, algebra, and geometry] must be found to combine the advantages of these three and to escape their faults. Finally, just as the multitude of laws frequently furnishes an excuse for vice, and a state is much better governed with a few laws which are strictly adhered to, so I thought that instead of the great number of precepts of which logic is composed, I would have enough with the four following ones, provided that I made a firm and unalterable resolution not to violate them even in a single instance.”¯ (Descartes, 1960)
Descartes begins his work in very consistent way. This way allows readers to see how has transformed and has changed his mind as he came to the one or the other conclusion. The reader can see why Descartes decided to become his own leader. So he begins his argument with the premise that the creation which is made up of many parts and made by hands of many masters, less perfect than the creation, over which worked only one person. This thesis establishes Descartes’ example, namely, that the building, conceived and executed by one architect, usually nicer and better constructed than those in the alteration of which were attended many people, using the old walls, that were built for other purposes. That’s why he decides to get rid of the views and opinions that have ever perceived, to replace them then the best or the same, but consistent with the requirements of reason. Descartes was careful and restrained person that is why he did not want just to refuse completely from any of the opinions, as long as he will devote enough time drawing up a plan of work undertaken and the finding of the true method for knowing all that, what can his mind.