Baroque is a European culture’s characteristic of XVII-XVIII centuries, the center of which was Italy.
Simplicity and clarity were reflected in the architectural style of dwellings and their decorations and transformed into straight, symmetrical lines and bright, pure colors. Public consciousness of the seventeenth century appeared in architecture and decor a little differently: it was curved shapes, swirls and shades of rich, deep colors: red wine, emerald, sapphire, and gold. Facades of the buildings looked like “delicious cakes”¯.
During this period, U-shaped style of the palace became popular. It consisted of a central building and two lateral protrusions, called a risalit. This building blends well with the park, which broke the back of the palace, as well as an honorary courtyard in front of the palace’s facade. Usually a fenced yard with bronze grilles covered with a gold leaf. In the Baroque period, there was a new fashion for stone bridges that adorn statues and huge vases for flowers. We should also remember architect Mansart’s innovations, who gave the central premise of the functional character. Now the roofs of the buildings have become much more picturesque.
One of the main characteristics of Baroque is the spatial illusions that accompany the interiors of this style. Components, traditional baroque interiors, mirrors, ceilings, walls, and screens were decorated with images based on paintings of living inhabitants of heaven. On the walls hang tapestries bearing the images of landscapes, such tapestries can be seen in today’s affluent homes. Solemn pathos of the interior is enhanced by abundance of heavy fabrics, carpets, rich sparkling chandeliers, gilded stucco, in which the predominant theme of images are leaves and fruits, cartouches and mascarones.
The differences and similarities between two periods of architecture’ development
The main difference between Baroque and Renaissance styles is that Renaissance has more simple and straight style but Baroque has more overflowing and complex one. In addition, Baroque churches were decorated by complicative and decorative effects, but at the same time they were very realistic. This is the main similarity of both periods (Baroque and Renaissance). They consist of a lot of realism in their styles.
Baroque roots go into the architecture of the Renaissance.
The baroque architecture is characterized by a spatial scale, unity, fluidity of the complex, usually curvilinear forms. Often there are detailed scales of the colonnade, the abundance of sculptures on the facades and interiors, volutes, bow-shaped facades with wall set-backs in the middle, rusticated columns and pilasters. Domes acquire complex shapes. They are often stacked, as in St. Peter’s Basilica in Rome. In comparison to Baroque, Renaissance is characterized by the horizontal division of the facade on the upper floors. There is the weakening of rust toward the bottom up. The order (pilasters, half-columns) is applied on the scale of the building, and the scale floor, but the ledge – on the contrary, it is extremely massive and coordinated with all building.
Renaissance’s creation leads to a period of ideological pursuits, the emergence of a whole system of philosophy. And yet again begins the process of gradual complication and the collapse of the simple one. Baroque, in turn, becomes difficult and complex.
The main feature which makes the Baroque style different from Renaissance is the floor plans. The Baroque style has the complex floor plans, different curves (e.g. the oval wing) and an energetic detailwork.
To sum up the above-stated information I can draw a conclusion that Renaissance and Baroque styles are important periods in the world’s history.
Renaissance in Italian architecture with its occurrence was associated with the processing of ancient traditions and order system for local building materials and structures. In buildings of this time re-emphasizes the plane wall, its materiality, clearly limited internal space, acquiring unity.
Baroque architecture served as the approval of Catholicism’s ideas and absolutism, but it reflects the progressive tendencies of architecture, which emerged in the planning of urban areas, buildings designed for the masses of the people. The brilliant center of the Baroque architecture became Catholic Rome. Baroque architects tended to dynamic spatial resolution to the treatment volume picturesque masses, used complicated plans with curved shapes. They destroy the tectonic relationship between the interior and exterior of the building, improving the aesthetic and decorative effect of the latter. Freely using antique made out to order forms, they enhance plasticity and picturesqueness of a general solution.