It is hard to overestimate the influence of Sigmund Freud on the western psychology. The founder of psychoanalyses, he had great influence not only on the science of psychology, but also on the whole world culture. He turned attention of psychology to unconscious part of our mind and stressed on the importance of childhood stage for all further human life.
Freud centers on the dominant role of sex. Jung believes that notable development occurs on the stage of adolescence and centers on the study of this period of human life. Freud believed that all dominant characteristics of human personality were formed in the childhood. He also believed that they were formed under the influence of infantile sexuality. He distinguished several psychosexual stages of development, which covered all life from infancy to adulthood.
Freud believed that development continued only up to adulthood and all further life was compensation of stages not passed in the childhood.
The focus on the unconscious first introduced by Freud had a great influence on the development of psychology and psychoanalyses. It can be found plenty of different opinions concerning this subject expressed by different psychologists but it’s hard to find anybody, who would be indifferent when talking about unconscious.
Jung is famous for the theory of adulthood. He adopted Freudian study of conscious and unconscious but expanded and slightly changed it. He was interested in the way conscious and unconscious interacted, controlled and complemented each other. He expanded the knowledge about unconscious and divided it into two kinds: personal and collective. His personal or shadow unconscious is very much alike to unconscious as it’s described by Freud. It contains things we don’t want to remember and try to displace from our conscious. The collective conscious study became innovation developed by Jung. He described it as a part of unconscious common for all people, who have some common heritage. Archetypal images belong to this part of unconscious.
Jung followed and expanded Freud’s teaching about unconscious bud there were points Jung didn’t agree. For example, he considered that Freud centered too much of sexual drives and passed over the important role of creative instincts and impulses, which had very important meaning in forming our motives. He expanded Freudian teaching about unconscious. Jung believed that reality depended on what we perceived and consisted of psychic images.
Both, Freud and Jung believed that resolving the problems of the patients consisted of brining unconscious motives into conscious, recognizing them and thus getting rid of the inner conflicts. Jung believed in unprejudiced influence of psychoanalytic in contrast to Freud who tried to direct his patients during the sessions of psychotherapy.
Carl Rogers was a famous American psychologist, who together with AbrahamÂ Maslow became the founder of humanist approach in psychology. His new approach got the name after him and his followers use term “Rogerian psychotherapy”ť nowadays. Rogerian psychotherapy is characterized by the use of humanist approach and non-directive psychotherapy.Rogersput a lot of effort in order to develop a non-directive approach in psychotherapy. He used the name client-centered therapy in order to identify his new approach. Late this approach was renamed to person-centered therapy. This kind of therapy can be used in order to name type of relations between different people, not only between psychologist and his client and that is the reason the name was changed.