Most of the scientists from different countries clearly realized the world ecosystem situation for a long time, but did not quite comprehend the seriousness of the problem as it is. Scholars underline their beliefs that it is high time to take on responsibility and act efficiently and in definite unity. The British scientist Sir David King stated firmly that: “Delaying action for decades, or even just years, is not a serious option. I am firmly convinced that if we do not begin now, more substantial, more disruptive, and more expensive change will be needed later on.”¯(King 2004) Due to recent technological development, population grows, urbanization, pollution of different kinds along with daily routines, global climate change has become an issue that the human population is able to reduce or eliminate.
Humans should reduce pollution in all possible ways. As it is next to impossible to do without fossil fuel, they should reduce its usage by implementing and developing other fuel, biodiesel fuel, for instance. As usage of fossil fuels which is growing creates significant volumes of hydrogen gas, hence there should be strong infrastructure for its transportation and use. One more way to reduce waste products is recycling. It is obligatory for every citizen as it helps to renew important resources and store energy, it is the point in waste management, as it successfully reduces the raw materials and waste on the whole. Less energy is wasted during the process of recycling than during the making process.
The population should preserve natural resources. The planet needs emissions reduction, the way of quick energy transition from oil and coal to renewable energy sources, such as direct solar energy, winds, tides, flowing water and also potentially renewable, such as fresh air, water, fertile soil. If the amount of pollution on the whole is reduced, ocean pollution will also diminish. As global warming influences not only sea level but also rising temperatures and coral bleaching along with destruction of marine life resources is of primary concern. WWF is working out the concept that energy system should develop to scale down its influence on nature and natural resources.
GrandSwitzerlandin the WWF research says that: “The world has more than enough sustainable energy and technology to curb climate change, but only if key decisions are made”¦”¯(Switzerland 2007) Nonrenewable resources should be carefully preserved, they are metallic and nonmetallic minerals, such as iron, copper; clay, sand. Scientific reports state that primarily environmentally friendly energy sources must be implemented. Energy demand is growing rapidly, so alternative energy sources should be wider used. In the article on renewable technologies it is clearly stated: “Global energy consumption in 2000 amounted greatly. Among the renewable energies, currently hydro power and biomass make a significant contribution to meeting global energy demand (biomass 10%, hydro 6%) and global electricity demand (19%). Roughly 80% of global energy demand is met through the use of fossil fuels”¯. (2006) Modern biomass is necessary for producing power, may be used for making methanol. Bioenergy use is different, there is solid biomass, such as wood rejects; biogas used to produce gas; biofuel is taken from plants.
Alternative energy, such as wind, hydro, solar, bio, wave and tidal nuclear energy, is hardly enough used in contemporary technological world. Today solar cost-reduction power, for example, contributes little to the electricity needs. Wind energy plants do not harm the environment and preserve energy resources. Geothermal plants need very little in comparison with fossil-fuel ones. According to the information of International Geothermal Association, usage of geothermal energy in agriculture is 80% cheaper. By all means energy consumption should be reduced as much as possible including domestic energy consumption. These low-emission technologies have a great potential and are to be used in sustainable manner.
They say, the world is modified by human action, population should initiate enacting legislation that proclaims the catastrophic loss of forests. Stopping deforestation is a crucial point in preventing substantial climatic changes. Not only policies but also immediate actions are needed for reducing emissions from deforestation in the course of global warming. In Acting Now for Future Generations article, it is mentioned that: “Despite the fact that deforestation is the second leading contributor of carbon emissions worldwide after the burning of fossil fuels, countries currently have few incentives for preserving their forests. However, it is finallyĀ gaining attention in international discussions on climate change.”¯ (King 2004) Deforestation is effective to reduce greenhouse gas giving out.
According to Conservancy data it “”¦contributes approximately 20 to 25 percent of carbon emissions each year, yet international policies do not provide support or incentives for reducing deforestation.”¯ (GECO 2006)Forest preservation needs to be multileveled, promoted and supported by government as well as non-governmental; hence, climate changes because of heat-tapping gas emission, industry and deforestation.
It is natural that replacing high-carbon coal with low-carbon natural gas is essential. According to WWF natural gas is a so called “bridging fuel”¯ with fundamental functions because while low-emission energy is being developed and perfected to be implemented, coal, gas and oil continue being of major importance. It is necessary for fossil-fuel plants which deal with carbon, to have proper conditions and equipment for carbon capture and storage. Substantial technology changes will possibly not occur in the near future but economy standards are to increase in order to reduce high-emission resources use, according to Climate Change Solutions of Pubic Citizen’s Energy Program. What is more, in the course of inevitable climate change it would be a good thing to implement powerful adaptation plans according to which natural areas which are under the influence of global warming may either easier withstand the difficulties or be “ready”¯ for changes. In such a way to help most exposed areas to adapt to new changes circumstances. Such unsafe areas areNew Mexico, theSierra NevadaMountains, etc. all over the world and as mentioned above coral reefs are also at risk.
Climate change affects our lives and will surely influence the lives of our children and further generations. This global problem of the ecosystem seems to be unsolvable but, actually, there are some steps to be done in order not to make matters worse. One of them is social reaction, which is represented with conservation, recycling as well as raising awareness, educate common people the role of each of them and all of them together is hard to be overestimated. Technological steps are very significant in this case as well as ecological ones. World governments were not successful enough to create a favorable atmosphere for preventing from global warming and withstanding its problematic aspects. The World Watch Institute worker revealed one of the major reasons of the present situation: “”¦we need to reinvent ourselves – as individuals, as societies, as corporations, and as governments”¯.