One of the researchers conducted a classification of group norms: 1) pride for the organization, 2) objectives, 3) profitability, 4) a collective work, and 5) planning, 6) control, and 7) vocational training, 8) innovation; 9) with customer; 10) protection of integrity. Managers should make their own judgments about the norms of the group with caution. For example, it might seem that a group of low-level managers who believe the right has always agree with the boss, show a high degree of loyalty. However, in fact, such a rule would lead to the suppression of a winning organization for the initiatives and ideas. Such suppression of important information is fraught with lower efficiency solutions.
Group cohesion ”“ is a measure of the gravity of group members to each other and to the group. Since the close-knit group works well in a team, a high level of cohesion can increase efficiency throughout the organization, if the purpose of either agreement. In close-knit groups is usually less of a problem in communication, and those that are – less serious than others. They have less misunderstanding, tension, hostility and mistrust, and their productivity is higher than in non-cohesive groups. But if the purpose of the group and the organization do not agree, then there is a high degree of cohesion of a negative impact on productivity across the organization.
Management may find it possible to increase the positive effect of cohesion that will periodically hold meetings and to focus on global goals of the group, and will allow each member to see his or her contribution to the achievement of these goals. The guide may also strengthen the cohesion, allowing periodic meetings to discuss slave potential or actual problems, the effect of forthcoming changes to industrial activity, as well as new projects and priorities.
Groupthink ”“ is a tendency to suppress the individual personality of their actual views on any event in order not to disturb the harmony of the group. Group members believe that the disagreement undermines their sense of belonging, and therefore do not agree that it should be avoided. To keep the members of what is understood as an agreement and harmony, a member of the group decides that it is better not to express their opinions.
In an atmosphere of groupthink primary task for the individual ”“ is to keep the total line in the debate, even if he or she has any other information or belief. Since no one expresses an opinion different from others, and no other offers, information, or the opposite point of view, everyone thinks that everyone else thinks the same way. Since no one speaks, no one knows that other members may also be skeptical or concerned about. As a result, the problem is solved with lower efficiency, since all the necessary information and alternative solutions are not discussed or evaluated. When there is groupthink, the probability of a mediocre solution nobody touches.
Conflict. There was mentioned earlier that a difference of opinion usually leads to more effective work groups. However, it also increases the likelihood of conflict. Although the active exchange of ideas is useful, it can also lead to intra-group disputes and other manifestations of open conflict, which is always bad. The causes of conflict in small groups and methods of their solution throughout the organization are the same.
Status of a person in an organization or group may be determined by several factors, including such as seniority in the job hierarchy, job title, location of study, education, social talents, knowledge and experience. These factors may contribute to a decrease in status and, depending on the values and norms of the group. Studies have shown that members of the group whose status is high enough, able to exert more influence on group decisions than members of low status. However, this does not always lead to greater efficiency.
A critical factor in determining the effectiveness of the group, is the behavior of each of its members. Group will function effectively if its members conduct themselves in such a way as to contribute to the achievement of its objectives and social interaction. There are two main roles of orientation to create a normal working group. Target roles are distributed so as to be able to select the group tasks and execute them. Supporting roles involve behaviors that contribute to maintaining and enhancing the life and work of the group. Most American managers perform targeted role, while Japanese managers – target and supporting roles. All in all, effective and productive group performance has become indispensable in each organization. It determines the strategy of the company, its work and image.