Hasheesh is resin produced by cannabis in a certain period of vegetation. Chemical, toxicological and pharmacological analysis of cannabis and hashish derived from it is complicated by variability of its composition. Depending on type and location of the plant, as well as the time of picking out, the composition and properties of cannabis vary. Contents of active components also changes significantly due to conditions and terms of storage.
Content of the main psychoactive substance is typically about 2%, but it may reach 9-10%. The analysis of a random sample of hasheesh showed that it contained 8,5% of moisture, 6,2% of starch, 24,8% of ash, 23,9% of pulp, 9,4% of crude protein, 7,8% of lignin, 0,9% of sugar, 20.5% of substances soluble in methanol (ethanol).
Similar group analyses do not allow making any significant conclusion about the nature of hashish. Easily determined ash can be the proof of identity (or difference) of samples of hashish. The second important indicator: substances soluble in organic solvent. Methanol (or ethanol) absorbs all the cannabinoids, and their content is related to the effectiveness of drug action. Defining alcohol-soluble fractions in different samples, the dignity of hashish as a drug can be estimated. Faction “crude protein”¯ does not differ from the usual vegetable protein as was defined by the amino acid composition. Individual tests in the analyzed sample of hashish proved the absence of saponins, alkaloids and flavanoids. Qualitative test for coumarins was positive.
Thus, hasheesh samples of different origins differ markedly by content and ratio of cannabinoids. There is a certain dependence of the phenolic components on the geographical conditions of cannabis growing. Cannabis grown in various parts of India produces hasheesh of variable quality. An important condition for highly active hasheesh is the certain height above sea level, the northern or southern slopes. The intensity of solar radiation, humidity and soil characteristics influence the quality and content of hasheesh.
Why do we have speed limit on roads?
Speed limit is one of the measures on road safety. Maximum speed is determined by the laws, traffic signs or instructions for use of different types of vehicles. Speed is one of the main causes of death on roads, and one of the most serious road safety problems. If a driver exceeds the established speed or drives at a speed not corresponding to traffic conditions, it increases the risk of collision with another vehicle, pedestrian and exit from the road limits. As the speed rises the driver has less time to react in an emergency situation and the braking distance increases. In addition, it becomes more difficult for other participants of the movement to determine the speed of the vehicle.
When driving at high speed danger of serious bodily injury and death increases. Even a small increase in speed (by 5 km/h) greatly increases the force of impact in case of collision. In the collision, driver’s body continues moving at the speed of his vehicle until it is stopped by safety belt, air bag or hit on the inside parts of the car or an external object. The velocity of the body determines the amount of energy that it needs to absorb in any collision. The faster one drives, the greater the force of collision and probability of death is.
Moreover, when speeding, vehicles create a great danger to pedestrians. Speed reduction on roads in the city contributes to a significant reduction of mortality and the number of serious injuries among pedestrians.
Thus, the goal of speed limit is to reduce the risk of accident and impact on the human body in case of collision. Restrictions depend on the type and condition of the road, the ratio of vehicles using the road, and roadside environment. In many cases, traffic condition requires that the speed was below the speed limit. These conditions include wet weather, night time, an unfamiliar, winding or narrow road, a large number of pedestrians or hazards on the roadside environment. Measures to control the observance of speed limits are a restraining factor for those who are speeding on roads.