In this essay I would like consider the history of basketball. To begin with it should be noted that basketball ”“ is a team sport with the ball. As a rule, in basketball game play two teams, each consists of five players. “The goal of each team ”“ is to throw the ball in the opponent’s basket and prevent the other team take the ball and throw it in their basket”ť, as stated in Basketball History. As usual, the basket is located at a height of 10 feet from the floor. Moreover, a goal from near and middle distance is scored in two points, with a distant (due to three-point line) ”“ three points. Free throw is estimated at one point. It should be noted that the standard size of a basketball court is twenty eight meters long and fifteen meters wide. It can be said that basketball is one of the most popular sports in the world. This game has reached the greatest development in the U.S., which was host to one of the best basketball championships – the championship of the National Basketball Association (NBA), as described in The History of Basketball and the NBA.
Many experts consider that the game similar to basketball was known to the Indians of Central America – the Mayan and Aztec. The ball was made of cast rubber and had to be thrown in the ring. However, the mother land of modern basketball is considered to be the United States. The game was invented in 1891 at the training center of the Christian Youth Association in Springfield, Massachusetts. Monotony of training was necessary to urgently put an end and make them fresh impetus, which was capable to meet the competitive needs of strong and healthy young people. To spice lessons in gymnastics, a young Canadian teacher, Dr. James Naismith invented a new game. “The idea of this game was born during his school years, when children played in an old game “duck-on-a-rock”ť. The meaning of this popular game was the following: throwing a small stone, it was necessary to hit them to the top of another stone, larger in size”ť, as stated in History of Basketball. In turn, Dr. James Naismith stuck to the railing of the balcony two fruit basket without bottoms, in which it was necessary to throw football ball (hence the name of the basketball ”“ basket and ball). A year later, James Naismith has developed the first thirteen points of basketball rules. However, the first matches on these rules have caused to be changed, although most of them stay to this day. In that time, the fans in the balconies catch the balls flew and tried to throw them in the basket of the oppose team, so soon there were invented basketball shields, which defend the basket from the fans. Moreover, in 1893 appeared iron rings with a grid. The new game was so interesting and dynamic, that in 1894 in the United States were issued the first official rules. At the same time, the U.S. basketball gets first to the East – Japan, China, the Philippines, as well as in Europe and South America. After ten years, in 1904 at the Olympic Games in St. Louis (USA) Americans have organized a show tournament between teams of several cities. Similar demonstrations were held during the Olympics in 1924 (Paris) and 1928 (Amsterdam), as stated in The History of Basketball and the NBA.
In 1920-ies national basketball federations in the U.S., Canada and Europe began to establish actively, and held the first international meeting. With time, basketball become popular among all segments of the population and in 1919 there was held a basketball tournament between teams of the U.S. army, Italy and France. In 1923, France conducted the first international women’s tournament, in which participated the teams from three countries: Great Britain, Italy and the United States. The game is gaining in popularity and recognition in the world, and in 1932 in Geneva, was founded the International Federation of Basketball Associations. In its first part were eight countries, among them were: Argentina, Greece, Italy, Latvia, Portugal, Romania, Sweden and Czechoslovakia. In 1935, the International Olympic Committee made the decision to recognize basketball as Olympic sport. In 1936 basketball appears in official program of the Olympic Games in Berlin. The Olympics basketball tournament was attended by teams from 21 countries. It should be noted that matches were attendant on the open tennis courts. During the Olympics was held the first Congress of FIBA, on which were considered and adopted common international rules of the game, as described in What is the History of Basketball?
Also, it should be noted that in the middle of the century basketball began to lose its inherent sharpness of the struggle. Consequently, this situation required to make in the rules a number of changes and additions to its recovery. The most important of these additions were following: introduction of 30 seconds rules (the team with the ball, shall throw the ball in the opponent’s basket within this period of time); increased the area of the zone in which an offensive player is not allowed to stay longer than three seconds.