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Posted on July 27th, 2012, by

Table of contents:

  1. Abstract
  2. Introduction
  3. The problem of weapon proliferation in the modern world and in Netherlands
  4. The mission and objectives of the non-proliferation organization
    1. The mission of the non-proliferation organization
    2. Diplomatic methods of the prevention of weapon proliferation
    3. The policy in relation to countries contributing to proliferation of weapon
    4. The role of developed countries in the prevention of weapon proliferation
  5. The importance of outreaching with local media
  6. The strategies of outreaching with local media
    1. The legitimating of the non-proliferation organization in local media
    2. The propagating of the non-proliferation organization in local media
    3. The use of new communication technologies
  7. Conclusion
  8. Works cited

 

  1. 1.     Abstract

The problem of the weapon proliferation often remains unnoticed in the modern society, especially in small countries, such as Netherlands. But such countries have a possibility to influence the process of the decision-making concerning the problem of the weapon proliferation through the NATO and the EU as well as other international organizations. However, the problem of informing the society of such countries as Netherlands about the weapon proliferation arises. Hence, the non-proliferation organization can be a public organization that will inform the public about the problem of the proliferation and defend interests of the public and, at the same time, control the government in relation to the policy of non-proliferation. However, the non-proliferation organization needs the support of the local media to convey its position, ideas, purposes, principles and values to the mass audience. In case of Netherlands, the local media are of the utmost importance for the non-proliferation organization because of the higher confidence of Netherlanders in the local media compared to international media. To improve the interaction and cooperation of the non-proliferation organization with the local media, the former needs to apply a complex of strategies. Firstly, the organization needs to gain the local confidence and socially legitimate itself. The legitimating includes informing the local media about the organization, its purpose, values, etc. and sharing its values with the local media and, through media, with the public. Secondly, the non-proliferation organization needs to propagate its ideas and actions to gain a larger support of the local media and the public. Finally, the non-proliferation organization needs to use the new communication technologies to enlarge its interaction with the local media and facilitate its communication with both media and the public. In such a way, the non-proliferation organization can meet its major goals with the help of the local media.

 

 

 

2. Introduction

Today the problem of weapon proliferation is very important and needs an effective solution or a set of measures that could prevent effectively the further spread of weapon, especially nuclear weapon. At first glance, such a situation is a bit paradoxical since the opposition of the two superpowers, the USA and the USSR that threatened the entire world has vanished along with the downfall of the Soviet bloc. As a result, the threat of the use of nuclear weapon by one of the superpowers has disappeared since there is only one superpower now, the USA. Obviously, this country is the dominating world power and there is no other rival in the world that could compete with the US. This is why it would be logical to presuppose that along with the end of the Cold War and the defeat of the major opponent of the US, the problem of the growing tension and the threat of the use of nuclear weapon will naturally disappear, but, in actuality, the situation is quite different nowadays. Instead of appeasement of the world, the development of nuclear weapon programs in such countries as North Korea, Iran, and Iraq during the rule of Saddam Hussein became a serious threat to the security of the entire world, while the downfall of the USSR even increased the threat of nuclear proliferation since the control over technologies and specialists weakened and, therefore, other countries could use them to create their own nuclear weapon. The situation in the West was not much better since a lot of valuable information available in the West could also be used by other countries to create nuclear weapon. No wonder that in the post-Cold War epoch new countries have declared about their nuclear status, including India and Pakistan.

In such a situation, the arguments concerning the necessity of the prevention of nuclear proliferation are very significant. Obviously, nuclear proliferation threatens to the stability in the world and undermines the existing balance of power and this is why it should be prevented, but, on the other hand, it is often argued that nuclear proliferation is inevitable and cannot be really stopped. However, it is necessary to remember about biological and chemical weapons which represent a serious threat to the world at large and no country can be left inside in the struggle against the spread of this weapon since, in the modern world, all countries are closely integrated. Therefore, all countries can face a threat of the use of either nuclear, or biological or chemical weapon. Nevertheless, often such countries as Netherlands ignore this problem and local society pays little attention to the problem of the weapon proliferation, though, in actuality, even such countries as Netherlands can be under the attack involving the use of biological, chemical or even nuclear weapon. The probability of such a threat increases proportionally to the spread of terrorism worldwide. In such a situation, the decrease of the public attention to the problem of the weapon proliferation can deteriorate the problem of the proliferation consistently because in Netherlands, which is a democratic country, the role of the public opinion is extremely significant. Consequently, the position of the local society can, to a significant extent, define the policy of Netherlands in relation to the weapon proliferation on both national and international levels.

In such a context, the role of non-proliferation organizations increases dramatically, but, today non-proliferation organizations face serious problems since they often fail to communicate effectively with the local community. As a result, their goals remain unnoticed, while their functioning produces little or no effect on the state policy that naturally leads to the decreasing of the public control over the weapon proliferation in Netherlands. Obviously, the public, being unaware of the problem of the weapon proliferation is disinterested in this problem because of the lack of information about it. Consequently, the position of the non-proliferation organization is crucial for the promotion of non-proliferation ideas and principles. However, the communication gaps between the non-proliferation organization and the public may be disastrous for the non-proliferation organization and they can prevent the organization from the achievement of its basic goals.

In the modern society, the most effective way of reaching the mind of each individual is the use of mass media. Therefore, the non-proliferation organization needs to develop positive relationships with mass media that means that it needs to apply effective communication strategies to outreach mass media in Netherlands to convey their ideas and goals to the entire society. The mass media are the most important mediators which define the effectiveness of the performance of the non-proliferation organization and if it fails to develop an effective communication to media, if it fails to draw the attention of media and maintain contacts with media, if it fails to create a positive image of the organization in media than the non-proliferation organization is likely to fail in its struggle against the proliferation of weapon that will naturally contribute to the growing unawareness of the population of Netherlands of the problem of weapon proliferation and its disastrous effect not only on the EU at large but also on Netherlands in particular, because Netherlands cannot be viewed separately from the EU as well as from the democratic world in general.

3. The problem of weapon proliferation in the modern world and in Netherlands

In actuality, the problem of weapon proliferation is often underestimated, while the population of such countries as Netherlands does not pay much attention to this problem. In fact, people believe this problem is irrelevant and, what is more, they are convinced they will never face the threat of using nuclear, chemical or biological weapon in Netherlands. However, such a view of weapon proliferation is apparently erroneous. The belief of people concerning the security of Netherlands and the absence of any external or internal threats of using weapon of mass destruction such as nuclear weapon or chemical weapon, for instance, is based on the historical development and the actual environment they live in. Netherlands have not been involved in any serious military conflict at the large scale since World War II and the population of the country grows conscious of the impossibility of a nuclear attack or chemical attack against Netherlands, especially against the civilian population of the country. In this respect, such a position of the local population can be justified by the absence of apparent reasons for the use of weapon against Netherlands.

The population of the country has not experienced any military conflicts for more than half a century that makes them unaware of the possibility of the use of the weapon of mass destruction. Furthermore, it is necessary to take into consideration the international situation which also contributes consistently to the superficial view of the population of Netherlands on the problem of weapon proliferation. The downfall of the USSR and the end to the Cold War evoked a false feeling of security since the major threat has vanished because the downfall of the USSR eliminated the threat of the use of nuclear weapon or any other weapon of mass destruction by this country against Western Europe, including Netherlands.

Also, it is necessary to take into consideration the belief of the population of Netherlands that the membership of the country in the EU and NATO can fully protect the country from any external threats, while the lack of internal conflicts and serious contradictions with Netherlands, caused by religious, ethnic or any other reason, strengthens the conviction of the population of Netherlands in the absence of any real threats. As a result, people living in Netherlands do not care about the problem of weapon proliferation, even though the numerous threats of the use of weapon of mass destruction, which is the direct effect of the weapon proliferation, still persist. Moreover, today, the use of nuclear and, what is more likely, the use of biological or chemical weapon is, in a way, even more probable than it used to be in the past, in the epoch of the Cold War. At this point, it is necessary to analyze the current situation in the world and current non-proliferation policies, in order to understand the extent to which the threat of weapon proliferation persists and in order to reveal the importance of the existence of non-proliferation organizations and their active social position in modern Netherlands.

In spite of all the efforts made by the world community to stop the weapon proliferation, many countries continue researches and even conduct tests of nuclear weapon regardless the strong opposition from the part of the world community and leading countries of the world. At the same time, the problem of the creation and spread of chemical and biological weapon still persists.

In fact, the problem of nuclear proliferation grows more and more serious because nowadays nuclear weapon is viewed as a serious threat to any opponent and as a challenge to the most powerful states, including the US.

Countries that develop their nuclear weapon programs, such as Iran, for instance, believe that nuclear weapon may be a kind of shield that will protect the country in case of the attack of one of its opponent. Moreover, nuclear proliferation gradually becomes a subject of international negotiations which rather resemble a kind of nuclear blackmail than international diplomatic negotiations. For instance, North Korea uses its nuclear program as a tool of getting international financial help. Repeatedly, this country launched and stopped its nuclear program as soon as the international community agreed to provide this country with financial, material or technical support. Even the current agreements concerning nuclear non-proliferation, signed by North Korean leader and representatives of the leading world powers, including the US, China, Russia, and others, is not very reliable.

In such a situation, it is quite natural that specialists estimate that there is no guarantee that countries, like North Korea, will fulfill their obligations and stop their nuclear programs (Sagan and Waltz, 135). In fact, the same may be said about Iran which attempts to develop its own nuclear program under the pretext of the development of the national nuclear power network, but, in actuality, the misuse of technologies by Iran is quite probable (Sagan and Waltz,, 176) that means that it can use its nuclear technologies to create nuclear weapon, as India and Pakistan have already done. Moreover, even such developed countries as France continue the nuclear race. At any rate, France, regardless the strong opposition within and outside the country, conducted a series of nuclear tests to improve its military potential.

In such a way, in spite of the presumable disappearance of the nuclear war in global terms with the end of the Cold War, the ongoing spread of nuclear technologies and nuclear proliferation proves the ineffectiveness of the existing nuclear non-proliferation treaties and agreements and measures undertaken at the present moment since new countries continue to create or has already created their own nuclear weapon. Consequently, the threat of the use of nuclear weapon still persists.

As for biological and chemical weapon, the situation is not much better. In stark contrast, the prospect of the use of biological or chemical weapon is even more real than the prospect of the use of the nuclear weapon and Netherlands can become the target of the attack, involving the use of the weapon of mass destruction. Such a threat makes the non-proliferation movement in Netherlands extremely important and the functioning of the non-proliferation organization can contribute to the spread of non-proliferation ideology and force the state to undertake more significant steps to prevent and stop the weapon proliferation in the modern world.

Obviously, the threat of the use of weapon of mass destruction is quite real in the modern world and in Netherlands, in particular. Netherlands is a part of the western world and its membership in the EU and NATO makes the country a potential subject of attacks from the part of various terror organizations, which ground their ideology on anti-American and anti-western principles, including radical Islamist organizations, such as Al Qaeda and others. In this respect, the threat of terror attacks is one of the major threats to Netherlands, while the weapon proliferation increases the opportunities for terror organization to get and use the weapon of mass destruction.  Today, biological and chemical weapon is more available to various terror organizations than it has ever been before and it is more available than nuclear weapon. The development of weapon of mass destructions by non-democratic states, such as North Korea, Iran and others may result in the use of this weapon by terror organizations.

At first glance, Netherlands is not exposed to the threat of terror attacks because the country is not actively involved into military operations against terror organizations and non-democratic states. Nevertheless, Netherlands is a part of the western world and its support of actions of other democratic states in their struggle against terror may be a sufficient reason for terrorist organization to launch attack on Netherlands. In this respect, Netherlands may be a convenient target for terror attacks because of its vulnerability to terrorism since the country does not have a well-developed system comparable to that of the US or the UK. Therefore, Netherlands is a vulnerable target which is easy to reach for terror organizations.

In such a situation, the population of Netherlands should be conscious of the existing threats to the national security and the life of people. However, the problem is that often people do not link the problem of terror attacks and weapon proliferation, while, in actuality, these problems are closely intertwined. This problem is the result of the poor coverage of the problem of the weapon proliferation by local media and the false sense of security of the local population. In this respect, it is hardly possible to underestimate the significance of the non-proliferation organization and the promotion of non-proliferation ideas. Otherwise, people will remain unaware of potential threats they can face in the future because of weapon proliferation. The latter is a very serious problem of the modern world because the spread of the weapon, including the weapon of mass destruction, becomes practically uncontrollable in the modern world. For instance, the development of nuclear weapon has ceased to be the prerogative of superpowers only. Instead, the club of countries possessing nuclear weapon expands progressively and traditional leaders in the development of nuclear weapon today have to admit the appearance of new states possessing nuclear weapon, such as India, Pakistan and others (Stohl, 146).

The same trend could be traced in regard to the biological and chemical weapon, which creation and spread is even less controllable than the spread of nuclear weapon and the risk of the terror attacks involving biological or chemical weapon is very high. At the same time, the effects of the use of weapon of mass destruction in Netherlands can be potentially extremely destructing. In this regard, the non-proliferation is of the utmost importance because it can solve the problem of the weapon proliferation, at least partially. It proves beyond a doubt that the current efforts of the state, including the state of Netherlands, are not enough to solve the problem of the weapon proliferation, its efforts to stop the spread of weapon worldwide are inefficient and insufficient because, in spite of the great danger the weapon proliferation exposes Netherlands and other countries to, the state still ignores this problem or, at any rate, makes littler efforts to solve this problem. In fact, the state stands on the ground that the solution of the problem of the weapon proliferation is rather a problem of larger states and world’s leaders, such as the US, than the problem of small states such as Netherlands.

However, such an approach to the weapon proliferation is absolutely erroneous because there are no larger and smaller, no more or less important countries in the world. Today, the position of either country matters, especially if the country is the member of the EU and NATO that means that the country can influence the process of the decision making on the top level. It is not a secret that the position of the EU and member-countries of the NATO, to a significant extent define the solution of global problems, including the problem of the weapon proliferation (Betts, 319). Due to its membership in the EU and NATO, Netherlands can stand for its non-proliferation position and pedal political and economic decisions that can contribute to the prevention of the weapon proliferation.

Unfortunately, Netherlands rather tends to ignore this problem and focuses on other issues, which the government considers more important, than on the problem of the weapon proliferation. In fact, the government of Netherlands is mainly focused on the protection of economic interests of Netherlands, while the solution of such problems as the weapon proliferation, which is one of the major factors that increase the risk of the use of weapon of mass destruction by some terror organizations in Netherlands, remain unnoticed. At the same time, such a position of the state is, to a significant extent, determined by the indifference of the local population to the problem of the weapon proliferation. Therefore, the position of the non-proliferation organization can be determinant in changing the public attitude to the problem of weapon proliferation in Netherlands, but to convey its position to the public the non-proliferation organization, beyond doubts, needs the support of media through which it can convey its ideas, goals and principles to the population of Netherlands.

 

4. The mission and objectives of the non-proliferation organization

The successful interaction of the non-proliferation organization with local media is based on several factors.

Obviously, the ability of the organization to develop and maintain contacts with local mass media is probably the most important factor that influences the relationships of the non-proliferation organization and the media and the conveyance of the position of the organization to the mass audience. The creation of the positive image of the non-proliferation organization in the media is another important factor which can determine the success of the organization. However, all these factors can never be relevant as long as the organization’s mission and objectives remain unclear for the media and, therefore, for the public. This is why the non-proliferation organization should primarily focus on the definition of its mission and major goals on the basis of which it will develop its program and strategies, including the strategy of the relationship with local media and the public. The mission and objectives of the non-proliferation organization are the foundation on the basis of which the entire organization functions.

On analyzing the problem of the development of the mission and objectives of the non-proliferation organization, it is necessary to underline the fact that the non-proliferation organization should develop its mission and objectives in the context of the global trends and taking into consideration specificities of Netherlands. The latter means the necessity to engage the public into the non-proliferation movement and the promotion of the idea of the non-proliferation among the population of Netherlands.

  1. a.     The mission of the non-proliferation organization

Taking into account the current situation in Netherlands and the world at large, the mission of the non-proliferation organization is to prevent the spread of the weapon, especially the weapon of mass destruction in Netherlands and other countries of the world. At the same time, it is important to lay emphasis on the adaptation of the mission of the non-proliferation organization to the specific situation in Netherlands. To put it more precisely, the lack of attention of the public to the problem of the weapon proliferation poses numerous challenges the non-proliferation organization should overcome and solve successfully. The non-proliferation organization should perform the function of the public, non-governmental organization and the major public power which should coordinate and direct the non-proliferation movement in Netherlands. But, first of all, the non-proliferation organization needs to draw the public attention to the problem of the weapon proliferation. Therefore, its mission should include the informing people of the threat of the weapon proliferation and risks accompanying the weapon proliferation, laying emphasis on the risks which the population of Netherlands can face directly, such as terror attacks involving the use of the weapon of mass destruction. Finally, the mission should include the formation of the positive relations and involvement of local media for which the organization should become the major alternative power which can convey the position of the public concerning the problem of weapon proliferation independently from the position of the government or other governmental institutions and agencies.

  1. b.     Diplomatic methods of the prevention of nuclear proliferation

The development of the basic goals of the non-proliferation organization should meet the current trends in the world and Netherlands and should be comprehensible and close to the local population. Obviously, the major strategic goal of the non-proliferation organization is the prevention of the weapon proliferation. But this strategic goal needs to be precise and includes a number of practical goals the non-proliferation organization has to achieve. In this respect, the organization needs to clearly set the methods it will use to achieve its principal goal and development of specific goals which can support the main goal. In this respect, the non-proliferation organization should primarily focus on the diplomacy as the major tool of the solution of the problem of the weapon proliferation. Traditionally, diplomacy was viewed as an effective tool of the prevention of nuclear proliferation and nowadays it still remains one of the effective tools to partially solve this problem.

In fact, diplomacy proved its effectiveness during the Cold War when with the help of diplomacy it was possible to decrease the tension between two superpowers. For instance, the Caribbean crisis of 1963, when the world had been as close to the nuclear war as never before, proved the fact that by means of diplomatic negotiations it was possible to solve even the most serious conflicts.

However, specialists argue that nowadays diplomacy has already lost its significance for the prevention of nuclear proliferation (Betts, 148). Basically, it is argued that diplomatic methods are ineffective and need to be supported by economic sanctions or even military interventions. In actuality, such a position is partially correct because nowadays many countries, including the US, tend to use military power instead of diplomacy.

In actuality, diplomacy remains the least harmful but still effective measure because it is the only effective way to compromise and peaceful solution of the problem of nuclear proliferation since any methods lead to the oppression of countries against which some economic sanctions, for instance, are implemented. In such a way, diplomacy may be used as preventive measure which stops the overwhelming majority of countries from nuclear proliferation because of the threat of diplomatic isolation from the rest of the world.

Obviously, the effectiveness of the use of diplomacy as the means of the non-proliferation may be argued and specialists have quite controversial views of diplomacy (Schenker, 247). Nevertheless, the non-proliferation organization should clearly define that its major goals it the non-proliferation through diplomacy, which may be supported by other means which are inferior to diplomacy. The set of such a goal and orientation on diplomacy is very important for the non-proliferation organization functioning in Netherlands. In fact, the neglect of the diplomacy can deprive the non-proliferation organization of the media support and, thus, the organization will have little, if any opportunities, to gain the public support. Netherlands is a democratic country and diplomacy is traditionally highly appreciated in Netherlands as an effective tool of negotiations. As a result, both the local media and population widely support diplomatic means which are perceived as the most effective methods to use to meet a goal. This is why the neglect of diplomacy would be a serious mistake for the non-proliferation organization.

At the same time, the organization should underline its peaceful and civilian status through the emphasis on the diplomacy. In such a way, the non-proliferation organization will get a positive public image and the local media will support the organization as the organization which supports democratic ideals and principles and opposes to violent or illegal actions. In such a context, the formation of a positive public image will be naturally achieved through the definition of the basic methods of the achievement of strategic goals of the organization.

  1. c.     The policy in relation to countries contributing to weapon proliferation

On defining its methods and basic approaches to the solution of the problem of the non-proliferation organization, it is important to develop the goals which the organization wants to achieve in relation to countries which should be the major contributors to the weapon proliferation  in actuality, the non-proliferation organization should clearly define what it expects from countries which are responsible for the weapon proliferation and which can use their influence and power to solve this problem. In fact, this goal is very important because it will define the position of the non-proliferation in regard to the foreign policy of the government and, what is more, it will help the population of Netherlands to better understand the basic goals the foreign policy of Netherlands should meet. In addition, the set of this goal contributes to the formation of priorities in the foreign policy, which the organization and a part of the population which supports the organization, stands for.

At the same time, to prevent nuclear proliferation it is important to have a clear strategy which includes a variety of methods that could be implemented against countries contributing to nuclear proliferation. In this respect, it should be said that this strategy should include complex strategy constituting diplomatic, economic, technological and military methods. What is meant here is the fact that it is necessary to use diplomatic sanctions against countries that contribute to nuclear proliferation. Primarily, it is necessary to involve the possibly larger number of countries in nuclear non-proliferation treaties and agreements. Secondly, diplomatic pressure should force countries violating these norms to change their policy. Furthermore, it is necessary to prevent the spread of technologies contributing to nuclear proliferation not only by means of limiting export of technologies, but also, limiting access to information to such technologies.

For instance, nowadays the valuable information concerning nuclear technologies may be found in open sources, including media, libraries, etc. Naturally, such accessibility of information facilitates nuclear proliferation. This is why experts argue that it is necessary to limit the access to information consistently and make nuclear-related information that could be used for the creation of nuclear weapon secret (Mearsheimer, 29).

At the same time, at the stage when technologies are already available, it is necessary to implement economic sanctions to force countries to refuse from nuclear proliferation or, in the most extreme cases, to initiate military operations, which though must be sanctioned by the UN like it was in the case of Iraq in 1990, to prevent nuclear proliferation. Thus, a complex of diplomatic, economic, technological and military measure can prevent nuclear proliferation.

In such a situation, the non-proliferation organization should largely inform the public about the necessity of implementation of effective preventive measures in relation to countries contributing to the weapon proliferation. The achievement of this goal also implies the use of media which are of the paramount importance for the non-proliferation organization since it is through the local media it can convey its ideas and its position to the mass audience nationwide.  In fact, through the mass media the non-proliferation organization should form the public opinion in relation to the problem of the weapon proliferation and, simultaneously, stand for its own principles and ideals which can be viewed as alternative to the position of the state or majority of the population of Netherlands, which is unconscious of the problem of the weapon proliferation and numerous risks which accompany this problem. Potentially, the non-proliferation organization should change the public opinion in favor of the non-proliferation movement, which is one of the ultimate goals of the non-proliferation organization.

  1. d.     The role of developed countries in the prevention of weapon proliferation

Another important goal of the organization is the formation of the public position in relation to the role of developed countries in the prevention of weapon proliferation. What is meant here is the fact that Netherlands is a well-developed country, which can influence the process of taking decisions on the top level, including such international organizations as the NATO as well as the EU. Both the EU and NATO are powerful structures which, to a significant extent, define the international policy and the development of the world. It proves beyond a doubt that if Netherlands raise the problem of the non-proliferation on the level of the EU and gain the support of other member-countries of the E, it will contribute to the consolidation of the position of the EU in regard to the problem of the weapon proliferation. Consequently, the position of Netherlands will be supported by the EU. Obviously, such a support will be beneficial for the population of Netherlands above all because it will secure Netherlands from any sort of aggression which may result from the weapon proliferation and uncontrollable spread of biological, chemical and nuclear weapon in the world.

At the same time, the problem of the weapon proliferation will be perceived in a different way on the national level too because the population of Netherlands will perceive the participation of Netherlands in the non-proliferation movement as a part of the common European policy. In such a way, the position of the non-proliferation organization can be strengthened, but in order to change the governmental policy and change the foreign policy of Netherlands, it is necessary to change the public opinion within the country that again implies the use of local media to promote the position of the organization and its ultimate goals to gain the public support and change the mind of the population of Netherlands in favor of the enhancement of the non-proliferation policy on both national and international levels.

In such a situation, it is necessary to take consideration the international politics because it is quite difficult to promote non-proliferation ideas in face of the strong international opposition. In this respect, the role of the US is particularly significant since, being the only superpower, this country has all essential tools and power to prevent nuclear proliferation with the assistance of the world community. In fact, the economic and technological potential of the US provide this country with the great influence. In actuality, not a single country can openly oppose to the US. For instance, Iraq has already failed to oppose to the US and other opponents, such as Iran and North Korea are likely to follow the example of Iraq in case of the further confrontation with the US.

This is why specialists underline that the US can benefit from its dominant position but it should also use its power to prevent nuclear proliferation in the world (Betts, 258). Consequently, the role of the US should be the role of the world controller that prevents nuclear proliferation. At the same time, it is important to underline the fact that the weapon proliferation is a serious problem which involves all countries and nations. Hence, the non-proliferation organization should stand on the ground that, in spite of the significant influence of the US and other larger countries, the position of the population of Netherlands is of the utmost importance. Using the local mass media, the non-proliferation organization can stimulate the support of the non-proliferation movement in Netherlands.

However, some specialists argue that the proliferation is inevitable (Sagan and Waltz, 232). For instance, often the example of the USSR of the period of Stalin’s rule is cited since Stalinist regime possessed nuclear weapon few years after the end of World War II but it had never used it. Therefore, it is argued that there is actually no harm in nuclear proliferation while it is virtually impossible to prevent totally the spread of nuclear weapon.

On the other hand, in response it is necessary to remind about the situation in which the USSR of the late 1940s-early 1950s was, being ruined after the war. Consequently, it was simply unable to initiate another war, while the following decades proved the fact that nuclear weapon was used by the USSR and now by other countries to force the world community to obey to the demands of a particular country or group of countries that is absolutely unacceptable and is a serious threat to the stability in the world.

This is why it is necessary to continue the policy of the non-proliferation and apply all possible means, including diplomatic, economic sanctions and even military operations, to prevent the further spread of nuclear weapon since it is a real threat to the security of the entire world. At any rate, it is obvious that nuclear proliferation may lead to the strengthening of non-democratic regime and, therefore, it represents a great threat to the world community. In this respect, the non-proliferation organization should extrapolate the global threat of proliferation on the national level and using local media to convince the population of Netherlands in the necessity to stop proliferation of the weapon of mass destruction. The use of media is an essential condition of the effective communication of the non-proliferation organization with the population of Netherlands because it is the media that basically shape the public opinion and the media provide the main part of information received by the public (Bagdikian, 198). At the same time, the non-proliferation organization should raise the interest of the public to the problem of the weapon proliferation, while the formation of the non-proliferation position and active counter-action to the proliferation is the ultimate goal of the organization.

5. The importance of outreaching with local media

Today, mass media play increasingly more important role. At the same time, it should be said that media are closely intertwined with celebrities who are often in the focus of attention of mass media and, to a significant extent, it is due to celebrities mass media maintain the interest of the public to their products and services.

In order to better understand the significance of media to the problem of the weapon proliferation and the promotion of the position of the non-proliferation organization, it is necessary to analyze the current situation in society and assess the role of media in the modern society. In this regard, the impact of media on the modern society is really enormous. First of all, modern media have already evolved into powerful tools which could be used by their owners to shape or, at least, influence the public opinion and create new trends in culture, social life, and even politics. It is not a secret that modern media are primarily mass media that means that they are oriented on the mass audience and, therefore, they can influence masses of people. In such a situation, it is quite natural that people that are using the same media, for instance, that are watching the same TV channels, reading the same magazines, etc. have certain similarities in their views, tastes, and even lifestyle.

In this respect, the impact of modern national media often outweigh the impact of local media and specialist argue that nowadays it is possible to speak about the formation of individuals’ identity under the impact of media (Chomsky, 87). Thus, cultural, political, moral and other views of an individual are shaped by media and national media tend to create a unique national culture that contributes to the formation of a specific cultural identity that can unite people living in different parts of the country, having different ethnic or cultural background. Under the impact of media they can accept those values that are constantly imposed on them. No wonder that specialists (Chomsky, 89) speak about the formation of a very specific MTV culture, or MTV generation. In fact, it is not only American or western culture that affected by this trends, but it is also possible to speak about the impact of American culture, including MTV culture on such traditionally conservative cultures as Kuwaiti culture. To put it more precisely, in the contemporary, globalized world, the growing cultural exchange leads to the growing impact of American culture on other cultures of the world and they become more and more Americanized or westernized. For instance, Kuwaiti culture gradually decreases the significance of rigid Islamic norms which dominated in the country. Instead, the new generations, some representatives of which have got their education in the USA and other western countries, more readily accepts western cultural standards and lifestyle, introducing elements of western culture in their national culture.

At the same time, it is necessary to remember about the fact that people can hardly resist to such an impact because media accompany people everywhere. In fact, modern mass media have made enormous progress and they became extremely diverse. In the past there were practically no alternatives to press, TV and radio, while nowadays there appeared Internet, which generates the creation of virtual communities with their unique culture (Bagdikian, 137), while the development of modern telecommunications, including mobile phones, made media constantly available to customers. Consequently, people are under a permanent pressure of media. They are simply bombarded with information that media supply and, what is more important, people do not really have a choice what information or what message they want receive from media and which they do not. To put it more precisely, people do not have an opportunity to get information that is really interesting to them and that they really want to know. Instead, they are consumers that receive a ready-made product of mass media that targets mass consumers and the major goal of media is to increase their popularity and their audience because it defines their profitability and, therefore, their survival in the highly competitive market.

In such a context, it is possible to estimate that the public opinion in regard to the problem of the weapon proliferation is shaped by local media since the population of Netherlands tends to heavily rely on the local media, while international media are secondary for people living in Netherlands (Bagdikian, 213). Traditionally, the local media are considered to be more trustworthy by the local population because Netherlanders believe that it is the local media that are really concerned with interests and needs of the local population and they are able to present the information objectively and free of biases and prejudices. In addition, the local media are consistently more effective to convey the message of the non-proliferation organization because they know preferences and tastes of the local audience. Consequently, the local media can explain the position of the non-proliferation organization to the local population comprehensibly. What is more, the local media possess a larger convincing power compared to international media because they can present the problem of the weapon proliferation from the local point of view. As a result, the problem of the weapon proliferation will not be perceived by the audience as an abstract problem which does not affect Netherlands and its citizens. In stark contrast, it is possible to present the problem of the weapon proliferation as a problem directly affecting Netherlands and concerning each citizen of the country. However, such a presentation of the position of the non-proliferation organization implies the high degree of interaction between the organization and media and, what is more, the wide support of the position of the non-proliferation organization by the local media. In order to get such a support it is important to use effective strategies which can help the non-proliferation organization to outreach with the local media.

6. The strategies of outreaching with local media

On analyzing possible strategies the non-proliferation organization can use to improve its outreach with the local media, it is necessary to point out that it is impossible to use one strategy only. Instead, the use of multiple strategies is recommended since many specialists researching the problem of the impact of media and relationships of media and public organizations (DeClerq, 229) indicate to the high effectiveness of the use of a complex of strategies which complement each other. In this respect, the use of various strategies is defined by the goals the non-proliferation organization attempts to meet. To put it more precisely, the non-proliferation organization needs to improve its relations with the local media to change the public opinion and the dominating negligent attitude to the problem of the weapon proliferation. Consequently, the organization needs to gain the public confidence as well as the support and recognition from the part of the local media in the reliability and significance of the organization. Furthermore, the non-proliferation organization needs to promote its ideas. As soon as the public gains confidence in the organization, it is necessary to start promote its ideas and position to encourage people start acting and supporting the idea of non-proliferation. Through such a public pressure resulting from the promotion the position of the non-proliferation organization via media it will be possible to influence the current state policies in this respect. At the same time, it is necessary to expand the presentation of the non-proliferation organization in the media and, at this point, the use of new technologies may be a very effective tool, which allows to increase the audience supporting the position of the non-proliferation organization through the use of new media, such as Internet.

  1. a.     The legitimating of the non-proliferation organization in local media

Taking into consideration the current attitude of Netherlanders to the problem of the weapon proliferation, the major strategy the non-proliferation organization should use, especially at the beginning of its active interaction with the local media, is the legitimating of the organization. What is meant here is the fact that, today, the problem of the weapon proliferation is not the most serious problem for the overwhelming majority of the population of Netherlands. Such an attitude to the problem of the weapon proliferation basically results from the lack of the attention of the local media to this problem. The latter, i.e. the lack of attention from the part of the media, is provoked by the poor communication of the non-proliferation organization with the local media. As the matter of fact, the non-proliferation organization is unfamiliar for the local media. Naturally, they do not pay much to this organization because they are not informed about its position and, what is more important, the local media are not confident in this organization. In such a situation, the social legitimating is crucial for the ultimate success of the non-proliferation organization in the building up its relations with the local media and, through the local media, with the population of Netherlands.

The social legitimating of the non-proliferation organization means having the local media which the organization interacts with know the story of the organization, its major goals and principles, its position in regard to the weapon proliferation. Moreover, the social legitimating of the non-proliferation organization implies that, eventually, the local media should accept the position of the organization and support it. This part of the legitimating strategy is crucial for the success of the non-proliferation organization because if it fails to gain the understanding and support of the local media, it will be likely to fail to communicate its position to the mass audience. It proves beyond a doubt that the lack of the local media attention and support of the non-proliferation organization will result in the inability of the organization to state its position through media, which can simply ignore the position of the organization and its very existence. Naturally, the media isolation of the non-proliferation organization will inevitably lead to its ruin or, at any rate, it will make the existence of the organization purposeless because without the media attention and public support the non-proliferation organization cannot meet either of its major goals defined above.

In stark contrast, the non-proliferation organization can communicate effectively its position, ideas and principles to the mass audience if the organization gains the support of the local media, which can shape the public opinion in Netherlands and, therefore, encourage people to support the position of the non-proliferation organization. The latter can lead to the growing influence of the non-proliferation organization on the state policy in regard to the problem of the weapon proliferation because, in such a case, the organization becomes a representative of large masses of people who actually are the only source of power in Netherlands. Consequently, the political elite and decision-makers will be unable to ignore the position of the non-proliferation organization in relation to the problem of the weapon proliferation.

At the same time, the implementation of the strategy of the legitimating of the non-proliferation organization should be based on the growing interaction of the organization with the local media and convincing of journalists in the importance and legitimacy of the position of the organization. In actuality, the non-proliferation organization needs to convince the local media that the organization represents a considerable part of the society and that its position is right and socially significant.

Thus, in order to implement this strategy in practice, the non-proliferation should start with a close work with journalists and representatives of the local media. In this respect, it is possible to recommend the involvement of journalists in the functioning of the organization. Ideally, the organization can involve some journalists who can work as volunteers in the organization. They can learn the purpose of the organization, its principles and position as well as they can learn the information about the problem of the weapon proliferation. On learning the information about the problem of the weapon proliferation journalists can hardly remain indifferent to the problem of the non-proliferation and they are likely to start supporting the non-proliferation organization.

At the same time, it is necessary to involve journalists directly in the functioning of the organization because it may evoke certain criticism from the part of the local media which can view such journalists as subjective in their representation of the non-proliferation organization. In this respect, it is possible to recommend spreading the information about the problem of the weapon proliferation and the non-proliferation organization among the local media. This may be done through mailing basic information to the main local media and leading journalists in Netherlands. Also it is possible to organize press-conferences or presentation of the non-proliferation organization to the media.

In other words, it is necessary to inform the local media about the problem the organization is concerned with and the position of the organization. In this respect, the organization can facilitate gaining the public confidence through the participation in international non-proliferation movement. For instance, the participation of members of the organization in international conferences can be a reasonable stimulus to evoke the interest of the local media to the non-proliferation organization because, through the participation in the international non-proliferation movement, including the participation in international conferences, the non-proliferation organization represents the position of Netherlands. Thus, the local media cannot ignore such an organization since it is important to know the position of the organization and inform about it the audience since if the non-proliferation organization is ignored by media than the media will automatically ignore the position of the entire country in regard to the problem of the non-proliferation. On the other hand, through the presentation of the position of the non-proliferation organization in the local media, they invite the public to discuss whether the position of the non-proliferation matches the position of the society or not. As a result, the international involvement of the non-proliferation organization will not only improve its outreach with the local media but it will also evoke the public discussion of the problem of the weapon proliferation that will facilitate the achievement of strategic goals of the non-proliferation organization.

  1. b.     The propagating of the non-proliferation organization in local media

On gaining the confidence of the local media, the non-proliferation organization can start an active promotional campaign in the media. The propagating of the position of the non-proliferation organization as well as the non-proliferation organization proper should involve a possibly larger number of the local media. In actuality, the goal of the propagating strategy is dubious. On the on hand, the non-proliferation organization can convey its position, major goals and principles to the local media and public. On the other hand, the organization contributes to the formation of a positive image due to the propagating of non-proliferation ideas which apparently target at the increasing security of Netherlands and its citizens and the elimination of threat of the use of the weapon of mass destruction.

Obviously, the non-proliferation organization needs to convey clearly its ideas and position to the local media because the local media are interested in organizations which position is clear and understandable not only to specialists but also to the mass audience (DeClerq, 242). In fact, the clear position of the non-proliferation organization is beneficial for the local media because this information is easy to convey to the mass audience and, what is more, the audience is more likely to accept positively comprehensible information on the position of the non-proliferation organization, than the information which is incomprehensible. For instance, the use of complicated terms, or ambidextrous position of the non-proliferation organization, double standards, when the organization supports the non-proliferation in relation to some countries and admits proliferation in relation to other countries, are absolutely unacceptable. Obviously, such an approach can undermine not only the position and the public image of the non-proliferation organization, but it also threatens to the position of the media which cover actions and position of the non-proliferation organization.

In stark contrast, the propagating of the position of the non-proliferation organization using comprehensible word-ins, concepts and ideas can increase the interest of the public to the organization and its position and, therefore, it will increase the interest of the public to the media covering the performance of this organization. Consequently, the local media are growing more interested in the non-proliferation organization because it becomes an attraction to the public that inevitably contributes to the growth of the interest to the information related to the performance of this organization and its position.

At the same time, the problem of the effective propagating arises. To put it more precisely, the non-proliferation organization can use simple and understandable concepts and ideas to convey its message to the audience through media, but, today, the organization needs a stimulus, an attraction which can draw the attention of media to the non-proliferation organization. In this respect, it is possible to recommend launching an active promotional campaign, which can involve a variety of tools targeting at the attraction of the public and media interest to the performance of the organization.

First of all, the non-proliferation organization can draw the public attention and the attention of media through the involvement of some celebrities. For instance, the non-proliferation organization can grant membership for a celebrity, such as a popular artist, musician, sportsman, etc. The engagement of a celebrity is the great attraction for the local media because a celebrity is a brand which has a considerable value for the local media. Consequently, a celebrity’s membership in the non-proliferation organization can be an important issue which the local media are willing to cover. In addition, the participation of a celebrity in the performance of the non-proliferation organization naturally increases the significance of the organization itself and its actions for the local media and the public.

Obviously, a celebrity, being popular, shares his or her popularity with the organization he or she represents, i.e. the non-proliferation organization. As a result, the public image of the non-proliferation organization improves and the relations of the organization with the local media improves too because the media are willing to get more information on the organization and the celebrity. In such a way, the non-proliferation can propagate its ideas and position through the exploitation of the popularity of the celebrity it engages providing media with information on its position and goals along with the information on the participation of the celebrity in the work of the organization.

Also, it is possible to organize socially significant events to propagate the position of the organization, though the organization of such events needs substantial funding of the organization and the non-proliferation organization cannot always afford the organization of such events. In terms of this strategy, the non-proliferation organization can organize charitable concerts or sport events targeting at the prevention of the weapon proliferation. For instance, the non-proliferation organization can organize a concert and use all the profit from the concert for the treatment of children who have become victims of land-mines. In such a way, the public will not only be informed about practical steps undertaken by the non-proliferation organization to treat the effects of the proliferation but it will also inform the public about terrible effects of the proliferation. At the same time, such events will definitely draw the attention of the local media which are likely to support the non-proliferation organization because it pursues humanistic goals and fulfils an important humanitarian mission.

Thus, the propagating should attract the attention of the local media to the non-proliferation organization and contribute to the formation of the positive public image of the organization that will stimulate the long-lasting interest of the local media to the performance of the organization.

  1. c.     The use of new communication technologies

The improvement of the non-proliferation outreaching with the local media should be based on the formation of a positive image of the organization, growing confidence of the media in the organization, and active promotional campaign. However, today, the effective promotion of the non-proliferation organization and improvement of its interaction and cooperation with the local media is highly dependent on the use of the means of communication and communication technologies. Obviously, the modern media and technologies are constantly progressing and, therefore, the non-proliferation organization should keep pace with the technologies in order to cooperate effectively with the local media. At this point, the role of new information and communication technologies can hardly be underestimated. In fact, they define the development of modern media and, thus, they define the interaction between the media and the non-proliferation organization.

Today, the spread of Internet affect consistently the functioning of media their work style and relations with its partners and the audience. At the same time, Internet opens huge opportunities for the non-proliferation organization and its outreaching with local media. Firstly, the non-proliferation organization can use Internet as the means of communication with the local media. For instance, it can spread the information about the actions of the organization, its major goals and principles, main events involving the organization via Internet. In addition, the organization can communicate with leading journalist supplying them with the recent information on the problem of the weapon proliferation and distinguishing the position of the organization from that of the state. With the help of Internet, the non-proliferation organization can develop its international relations, which, as it has been already mentioned above, could contribute to the growing attention of the media to the functioning of the organization. The development of contacts with foreign organizations and the participation of the non-proliferation in intentional events related to the non-proliferation movement increase the value of the non-proliferation organization as a subject of news coverage by media and increase its significance for the media.

Furthermore, the new communication technologies open larger opportunities for the communication between the non-proliferation organization and the local media. In this respect, it is important to underline the role of speed of the spread of information and communication in the modern world at large and in media in particular. Obviously, the modern media target at conveying the latest and reliable information in possibly shorter terms to the mass audience. The media that finds and conveys interesting or important information the first can increase its audience and, therefore, can increase its profits. Consequently, the new communication technologies become crucial for the media and the extent to which the non-proliferation organization can use the new communication technologies can define the improvement of its outreaching with local media.

The non-proliferation organization can use new communication technologies, including Internet, mobile telecommunications, etc. to share the information it gets with the local media and if this information is interesting and important for the public the media readily use this information and convey it to the audience. In such a way, the non-proliferation organization can inform the local media on its position concerning issues related to the problem of the weapon proliferation. For instance, the non-proliferation organization can criticize the government for the lack of actions concerning the non-proliferation and, simultaneously, it can appeal to the public to force the government to undertake actions to ensure the public security through non-proliferation.

At the same time, the organization can use the new information technologies, such as Internet, to promote and convey its position, goals and principles to the audience regardless of the local media. For instance, the creation of the organization’s website can facilitate the communication of the organization with the public. However, it is hardly possible to recommend ignoring the local media even if the non-proliferation organization can inform the public about its actions and goals on direct. Obviously, the non-proliferation organizations need the promotion, even if it creates a website it needs media to make the public interested in visiting the website and getting more information on the non-proliferation organization.

Hence, the independent use of new communication technologies can be used as a complementary means of communication with the public, while the local media remain the major means of communication. Also, specialists point out that the older population tends to prefer conventional media, including print media and television, rather than Internet (Rogers, 33). On the other hand, the younger generation is more likely to use visual media, including television and Internet, rather than print media (Chomsky, 77). This means that in order to succeed the non-proliferation organization should use not only the new communication technologies to improve its interaction with the local media, but it also needs to cooperate with all media in order to embrace possibly larger audience and, therefore, to draw more attention of the public to the problem of the weapon proliferation. Otherwise, the non-proliferation organization can hardly meet its basic goals.

7. Conclusion

Thus, taking into account all above mentioned, it is possible to conclude that the problem of the weapon proliferation is still one of the major problems of the modern world. At the same time, many countries and societies are unconscious of this problem. Instead, they have a false feeling of security which is absolutely irrelevant to the actual situation in the world. In this respect, it is possible to refer to the example of Netherlands. The population of the country is practically unaware of the problem of the weapon proliferation. In fact, such a situation is determined by several factors, including the end of the Cold War and the elimination of the threat of the nuclear war in the global scale, the seeming remoteness of Netherlands from conflict areas and its non-involvement into serious conflicts which can expose the country to the attack with the use of the weapon of mass destruction. However, in actuality, the security of Netherlands is illusionary and the problem of the weapon proliferation, directly or indirectly, will affect the population of the country. In such a context, the informing of the public about the problem of the weapon proliferation and the formation of the public opinion against the proliferation is crucial for the solution of the problem of the weapon proliferation.

In this respect, the non-proliferation organizations play particularly important role since they can inform the public about the problem of the proliferation and clearly shape the public position concerning this problem. However, to meet this goal, the non-proliferation organization needs the assistance of media. In case of Netherlands, the non-proliferation organization needs to develop close partnership and interaction with the local media because Netherlanders are more confident in the local media compared to international media which they do not trust much.

At the same time, in order to outreach with the local media, the non-proliferation organization needs to use a complex of strategies. Firstly, the non-proliferation organization needs to legitimate itself. In other words, it should communicate with the local media, inform them on its position, goals, principles, values, etc. After that the non-proliferation organization needs to involve the local media and journalist and share its values with them. In such a way, the non-proliferation organization can gain the media confidence, which is the foundation for the further closing the communication gap between the organization and the local media. Another strategy the non-proliferation organization should use is the propagating of its ideas, goals and actions in the local media. For this purpose, the non-proliferation organization should use all possible means available, including the involvement of celebrities, organization of special events, etc. Finally, the non-proliferation organization should use the new communication technologies, such as Internet, to communicate with the local media and to spread its ideas, involving masses of people to support its position on the national level and influencing the current policies of the government of Netherlands. The new communication technologies allow the non-proliferation organization to communicate faster and more effectively.

In such a way, through outreaching with the local media, the non-proliferation organization can gain the public support and become the representative of the non-proliferation part of the population of Netherlands.

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