Retention of qualified staff is a relevant problem of modern business. Turnover of high-class personnel often becomes one of the most serious problems in most companies. The time has come when the employee chooses where to work, not vice versa. And in these circumstances particularly painful are two questions: “How to retain the best professionals?”¯ and “How to raise loyalty to the company?”¯
The reasons why people remain in the organization can be identified through surveys. They select the segments of respondents according to the duration of the work in the organization and analyze the responses of the organization’s veterans to detect possible patterns. The results of the survey can be backed up by focus groups that discuss the reasons for continuing working in the organization and identify possible problems. Further we provide the analysis of situation in JC’s Casino in compliance with the given scenario, and work out recommendations on its improvement. One of the solutions for this important issue is motivational programs designed to raise the performance and loyalty of staff to the employer company, which will also be discussed below.
JC’s Casino comes across serious problems. They include: employee turnover, ineffective organization of labor, dissatisfaction of employees with labor conditions and loading”“reinforcement ratio, lack of discipline (absenteeism and time lags), leadership-employees conflict, and lack of communication within the management of the Casino.
This has resulted in the necessity to shift check-in time (which is inconvenient for the customers and doesn’t correspond to industry standard), hire additional personnel, organize additional luggage room and intensify the loading of the housekeeping department. Such consequences could further lead to the significant decrease in the number of satisfied clients, together with decrease in incomes and in general competitiveness and attractiveness of the Casino in the local market.
The essence of function of motivation is in employees performing tasks in accordance with their rights and duties and with the positive management solutions.
The system of employee motivation, as well as any other work system in an organization, must fully comply with the company’s strategy, structure, resources and corporate culture. In order to attract and retain skilled professionals, it is necessary to try to find a key factor motivating the choice of place of work, and to offer it to potential candidates. Basing on the situation in JC’s Casino, we can offer an approach based on 2 theories of motivation: equity theory and Herzberg two-factor theory of motivation.
Equity theory postulates that people determine the ratio of the reward received for the efforts expended subjectively and then correlate it with the rewards of other people doing similar work. If the comparison shows the imbalance and inequity, the person gets a psychological stress. As a result, it is necessary to motivate this employee, reduce tension and to correct the imbalance. People can restore the balance either changing the effort, or trying to change the reward (Beck, 2003).
In their complex theory of motivation, L. Porter and E. Lawler give five variables: effort, perception, results, reward, satisfaction. The results depend on the employee’s efforts, abilities and characteristics, understanding of his role in the working process. The efforts are determined by the reward and the degree of confidence that these efforts lead to a certain level of reward. Results may lead to internal rewards (satisfaction from the work performed) and external rewards (praise, premium). Satisfaction is the result of external and internal rewards based on their equity (Mullins, 2007). One of the most important conclusions of the procedural theory is that efficient work leads to satisfaction.
On the other hand, content theories are based on determining of inner motives which make people behave in a certain way. Thus, F. Herzberg outlined two groups of factors influencing people: retaining factors or hygienic factors (company and administration policy, working conditions, wages, interpersonal relationships, management style, reward, degree of direct control over work) and factors motivating to work (work itself as a value, high degree of responsibility, possibility of self-improvement and career growth, achievement, recognition and endorsement of the work, success) (Beck, 2003).