Nowadays, there are certain circumstances under which some people are labeled with term mental illness and others are labeled normal. People are led by peculiar historical or social forces to the current ideas that frame “deviant”ť behavior as madness. Many people are considered mentally ill, if they can see, do, or talk the things that other people do not want to do, or can not. There are many absurd situations and many misunderstood cases that made people think about the madness of others, inventing the labeling behavior.
Mental disorder – in the broadest sense ”“ is a mental state different from the normal / healthy. However, this term may have a particular value in areas such as law, psychiatry and psychology. Idea of what is and is not a mental disorder, is changing with the development of science. For example, social phobia a couple of decades ago was not considered a mental disorder and people suffering from this disease, were considered to be just very shy. Conversely, several decades ago homosexuality was considered a mental disorder requiring treatment, and now, according to present International Standard Classification of Diseases 10th revision of its own sexual orientation it can not be seen as a disorder: only the psychological problems that arise in connection with it are classified as diseases. It can be said that people are inventing some of the diseases that were considered normal behavior in the past, according to Mental Illness Facts (2010).
Psychology in general, uses the term to describe any mental state other than healthy. Accordingly, the criteria of mental disorders in this, broadly, are the criteria, to check the criteria for mental health, that is, any of the following: violation of a sense of continuity, permanence, and identity of their physical and mental “I”; lack of a sense of permanence and identity experiences in similar situations; uncritical of self and your own mental products (activities) and its results; mismatch reactions (adequacy) the strength and frequency effects of the environment, social circumstances and situations; inability of government behavior in accordance with social norms, rules, laws; inability to plan their own livelihoods and to implement these plans; inability to change the way of behavior, depending on changing situations and circumstances, according to Mental Health Overview (2009).
Types of mental disorders. Exogenous kinds of mental disorders. Causal factors, directed from the outside. Example: alcohol, industrial toxins, drugs, toxic substances, radiation, viruses, germs, traumatic brain injuries, psycho-trauma.
Endogenous forms of mental disorders. Internal causal factors. Example: chromosomal aberrations (disorders), genetic diseases, with a hereditary predisposition (which may be transmitted through several generations, because of an injured gene).
The manifestations of mental disorders. Manifestations of mental disorders are the imprint of the socio-cultural environment in which educated people. Therefore, the same mental disorder in different societies and cultures may be manifested in different ways. In the cultural and social strata, where mental disorders do not find understanding and support from others, increased somatization of these disorders and their somatic focus. For example, in China, is present major depression – often somatization (patients complain of disturbance of the internal organs), and in America and Europe, often characterized as apathy, loss of energy and emotion. According to experts of the World Health Organization, every fourth or fifth person in the world suffer from one or another mental or behavioral disorder, according to Mental Disorders (2011).
As a fact, Freud (1917) was the first to propose a comprehensive model of the development of mental disorders: according to this theory they are the result of internal tensions and, in most cases, unconscious unresolved that have their origin in the development of libido the child. In this development the child goes through various stages, in which makes the experience of having certain needs satiated or not. For an adult person to make certain traumatic experiences that trigger mental disorders – the exact form of these disorders is then connected to the experiences made at various stages of development.