According to modern research and theories of management, organizations that are successful are characterized by dynamic and effective governance Ēď as the main condition of effectiveness.¬†But in this claim words ďgovernanceĒĚ and ďthe headĒĚ are synonyms to the words ďleadershipĒĚ and ďleaderĒĚ.
Problems of leadership are key to achieving organizational effectiveness.¬†On the one hand, leadership is regarded as having a particular set of qualities attributed to those who successfully influence on others, and on the other hand, leadership is a process of guiding people in a group or organization towards their goals. Leadership is a specific type of managerial interaction, based on the most effective combination of different sources of power and aimed at encouraging people to achieve common goals.
The nature of leadership may be better understood when compared with management. To be a manager and a leader in the organization – is not the same thing.¬†Manager in his influence on the work of subordinates and building relationships with them, above all, uses and relies on the formal power over subordinates.¬†But Leadership as a specific type of governance, is based more on the process of social influence and interactions in the organization.¬†In contrast to the actual management, leadership assumes in the organization presence of followers, rather than subordinates.¬†Accordingly, the relationship “boss – subordinate” inherent in the traditional view of management, is replaced by relations of “leader – follower”.
Leadership¬†differs¬†from management ¬†which¬†involves¬†quite¬† strict and¬†formalized¬†system of¬†relations¬†of domination¬†–¬†subordination.¬† But the leader is¬†a¬†symbol¬†of community and example of group¬†behavior,¬†as a rule he is nominated¬†informally,¬†mostly¬†spontaneously, by the¬†followers. The leader is a person, for whom all other group members recognize the right to take on the most important decisions affecting their interests and determine the direction and nature of the representation of the entire group.
It is important to point, that problems of leadership are key to achieving organizational effectiveness.¬†On the one hand, leadership is regarded as having a particular set of qualities attributed to those who successfully influence or impact on others, on the other – Leadership is a specific type of managerial interaction, based on the most effective combination of different sources of power and aimed at encouraging people to achieve common goals. New approaches concentrate on the leader’s ability to create a new vision for solving problems and, using his charisma to convey its meaning followers in a way that is inspired and aroused their enthusiasm to implement actions to achieve goals.
Leadership, like management, is to some extent an art.¬†Perhaps this is the reason why the researchers failed to develop and prove a unified leadership theory.¬†Leadership style depends on the situation: in some cases leader achieves efficiency when¬† taking main decisions alone and structuring tasks, managing people to work on them; in other cases leader allows subordinates to participate in solving production problems; in the third Ēď he may change the style of leadership under pressure from superiors or circumstances.¬†In any case, the style of a true leader should be a flexible tool of effective management. The person who wishes to become a leader must possess certain qualities that are in different situations must be different.¬†It is recognized by scientists that leadership skills can be learned, but must possess certain abilities, and due to these qualities a person can acquire credibility and recognition of followers.
Leader performs a variety of social roles, each of which requires specific knowledge and skills.¬†Among the issues under the competence of the leader the main ones are: adoption and development of a certain type of organizational culture, building effective communication in the organization, building coalitions and developing partnerships, timely response to the dynamics of the environment and managing change. Management and leadership efficiency is directly related to optimal use of resources of the organization in solving urgent problems and its ability to adequately meet the requirements of the near future.
Thus, ¬†a leader ¬†of organization can become only a ¬†person who can lead a group to solving one or another problems, challenges, who bears the most important for this group personality traits, who bears and shares the values that are inherent¬† to the group. Leader with organizational skills are able to quickly and correctly assess the situation, allocate tasks, requiring the implementation of priority, to distinguish the most important from unnecessary tasks, ¬†to accurately calculate time for solving problems.¬†The idea that the main distinguishing feature of leader is ability to ¬†quickly find effective ways and means of solving problems, is confirmed at every step.
It is interesting to point the statement about leadership of Napoleon Bonaparte: “My genius is that a quick glance¬† I cover all the difficulties of the situation, but at the same time I see the resources to overcome these difficulties, it is my obligation to lead over others.”
In the organization the role of leader lies in managing people ¬†and their activities in the process of work, that ¬†requires close personal contacts – in this case play an important role his personal qualities like the ability to control the situation, make decisions, take responsibility, to make the right choice (among the people, issues, priorities).¬† To develop organizational and managerial qualities of a leader – it is a problem of his own training and education.¬†Ability to form a group, unite it, set goals, deliver to the society (organization) necessary task, to formulate a cohesive work program – these are the modern requirements for effective leader.
The main task of the head of any level is to achieve the objectives of the organization by multiplying the intellectual and physical forces of the collective efforts of his subordinates. Leader who wants to get everything possible from his subordinates to work more effectively, must skillfully use and possess the leadership, depending on the requirements and objectives. So, it ¬†is effective leadership that is the most important factor of ¬†organization’s success and effective work, and therefore is considered the most ¬†important resource in modern organizations.