Persia was one of the largest states in the Middle East, which was threatened to the emerging Western civilization, namely Greek civilization.
Persia grew in power and it became the empire that united civilizations covering the Eastern Mediterranean and the Middle East.
The Persian Empire became the power that eventually became the major opponent of the Greek civilization and was perceived the major enemy of the Greek civilization.
On the other hand, Greece was the new, emerging power in the ancient world which confronted Persia.
Greece reached the high level of development in different fields, including economy, social relations, politics, art and culture.
As Greek communities progressed and developed their agriculture they needed to develop their socioeconomic activities and trade. The latter stimulated the development of cities.
Greek cities became not only economy but also political and cultural centers of Greece and ancient world. At the same time, Greek cities were city states which had their own authorities, economy and politics, but cultural similarities and common political and economic interests united Greeks.
Religion was another important element uniting Greek civilization.
The emergence of Greek civilization was accompanied by the development of art, especially literature. Greek language became a vehicle language in the ancient world, while the cultural and socioeconomic impact of Greece spread around the Mediterranean.
Italy became another center of the ancient world, where new civilizations emerged, among which it is possible to single out Roman and Etruscan civilizations as well as Carthage, which were consistently influenced by the Greek civilization.
In spite of advancement of Greek civilization, social and gender inequality persisted in Greece and Hellenistic world. The position of women was particularly difficult.
Greek civilization is renowned for outstanding philosophers, such as Plato, Socrates, Aristotle and historians such as Herodotus, Plutarch and others.
However, internal conflicts between Greek city-states undermined Greek civilization.