In this respect, the development of Maslow’s Needs theory can be viewed as an alternative to traditional methods of the Scientific Management. First of all, it should be said that Abraham Maslow is recognized by many specialists (Mook, 168) as an outstanding psychologists whose findings help better understand human nature, behavior of people and their motives. In actuality, Abraham Maslow was mainly focused on human psychology and all his theoretical efforts were directed at the revealing the essence of human nature and understanding of their behavior.
On analyzing human behavior, Abraham Maslow has developed a theory which is based on human needs as the major factors that define human behavior. In other words, Abraham Maslow stands on the ground that human actions, behavior, interests are determined by human needs.
In this respect, he did not made a great discovery since other scientists also indicated to a significant role of needs in the life of humans (Nicholson, 89). However, the major accomplishment of Abraham Maslow is the development of the hierarchy of human needs. In fact, unlike his predecessors, Maslow systematized and structured human needs.
Basically, his hierarchy of human needs include six major elements: 1) physical, 2) safety, 3) belongingness and love, 4) esteem, and 5) self-actualization (Wahba & Bridwell, 218). All these elements of the hierarchy are extremely important to each individual and they define the life and behavior of people. In fact, this hierarchy is strictly structure since the significance of needs increases steadily from physical up to self-actualization. Maslow developed the idea that physical needs and needs of safety are basic needs that lie at the bottom of the pyramid of the needs’ hierarchy. At the same time, the physical needs are vitally important since they create the foundation for the physical existence of human beings for they need to eat, drink, sleep, etc. to survive. The safety needs are also important because they are closely interrelated with the survival of an individual in a hostile environment.
In actuality, physical and safety needs are primitive, basic needs. The following three categories of needs occupy consistently more important place in the hierarchy and are more meaningful for human on the social level. For instance, the belongingness and love needs imply the need of an individual in the participation or belongingness to some social group, such as family, group of friends, colleagues, etc. On the basis of the relationship with other people individuals shape their esteem, which comprises individuals’ self-esteem, confidence, achievements, respect of others, etc. In such a way, the esteem shapes the significance of an individual for the society and his self-perception.
As a result, self-actualization of an individual accomplishes the hierarchy of needs created by Maslow. The need in self-actualization implies mainly moral needs of an individual, the need to realize individual’s potential, creativity, etc. (Cooke et al, 134).
From the managerial point of view, these findings of Abraham Maslow can help develop effective management style on the basis of the formation of positive relationship between individuals. Obviously, on the basis of the needs of an individual it is possible to find more effective approach to managing this individual. What is meant here is the fact that it is possible to meet the needs of an individual and, in such a way, stimulate his/her work, increase the effectiveness and productivity of work since it proves beyond a doubt that the satisfaction of individual’s needs is a strong motivating factor improving his/her professional performance.