Human intelligence was always a subject of particular concern of many scientists working in different fields, medicine, psychology, biology, and many others. In spite of numerous researches of the functioning and essence of human intelligence this domain still remains under-researched and scientists cannot clearly define the essence and functioning of human intelligence because not a single theory can lead scientists to agreement on this question. In this respect, it is quite noteworthy to refer to the works of Spearman andGardneron this problem.
Speaking about the works of the two scientists on human intelligence it is necessary to underline that they have both similarities and differences. First of all, it should be said that they view human intelligence in a similar way since both Spearman andGardneragree that it is a complicated model that can have several layers or dimensions which can function within one and the same system constituting human intelligence. The scientists agree that human intelligence sis unique and differ from individual to individual.
At the same time, they used absolutely different approaches to the research of human intelligence and, therefore, their conclusions may vary considerably. In this respect, it is necessary to underline thatGardneris often criticized for the high level of subjectivism of his theory. His opponents argue that his theory is not supported by empiric evidences and, consequently, is not reliable in purely scientific terms (Klein, 1997, p.382). In stark contrast toGardner, Spearman is criticized for his mathematical approach to the analysis and research of human intelligence.
His opponents argue that, instead of a profound analysis of human psychology, he suggests a sort of mathematical formula to define the model of intelligence, while numerous psychological peculiarities of an individual are often left aside (Lovie, 1997, p.342).
In order to better understand the nature of such criticism, it is necessary to briefly refer to the theories developed by Spearman andGardner. In fact,Gardnerstands on the ground that different intelligences can exist within human being. Each individuals may have different levels of these intelligences but one is the dominant one that defines the intelligence model of an individual. As a result, he distinguishes eight types of intelligences on the basis of criteria elaborated by the researcher but which, in actuality, are not really related to a systematic, quantitative analysis of intelligence.
In stark contrast, Spearman focuses on a purely quantitative approach to the analysis of intelligence. To put it more precisely, he elaborates the theory, according to which disparate cognitive tests scores reflect a single general factor, a so-called g-factor (Lovie, 1997, p.343). He amply uses factor analysis and rank correlation in his research but he pays a little attention to qualitative analysis and subjective psychological factors.
Thus, taking into account all above mentioned, it is possible to conclude that Spearman andGardnerdeveloped very important theories that can help better understand human intelligence, its essence and functioning. They agree that it is a complicated multi-structural system but, at the same time, their approaches to the analysis and research of human intelligence varies considerably since Gardner is mainly focused on qualitative analysis and relies on his subjective judgments and theoretical assumptions, while Spearman focuses on the quantitative analysis and creates a kind of mathematic intelligence model that does not take into consideration important psychological factors that cannot be explained in terms of mathematic formula and figures.