The contemporary project management applies different models, which may be efficient but there are no universal model that could be applied in different organizations and projects with equal success and positive outcomes. In this regard, the implementation of different models should be grounded on the ability of project managers to implement the model that meets the best the organizational requirements and needs. Today, it is possible to distinguish the linear model, the waterfall model, and the spiral model.
The linear model includes the steady development and implementation of each stage of the project plan. In this regard, it is important to distinguish four key steps of the project management. The first step is definition, when it is necessary to define the goals of the project and define the strategic direction in the development of the project. The second step is planning, when the project manager should define key steps to undertake to reach the goals of the project. Each step is very important. At the same time, managers should prepare possible alternatives in case of troubles in the implementation of the plan. Alternatives allow to introduce changes in the plan in the course of its implementation to reach the desirable goals.
The implementation of the plan includes the development of the strategy of implementing the plan. At the implementation stage, each step of the plan should be completed successfully. Finally, the last stage is the closing stage, which helps to identify key problems in the development of the plan and its implementation. As a rule, the close stage includes the assessment of the project.
The waterfall model includes the four traditional stages of the project management. The project definition includes defining project goals, requirements, and specification. The planning includes engineering, proposal, quotation. The project implementation includes design, manufacturing, integration. The project closure includes handover to operation. The waterfall model is a linear model in its essence. At the same time, this model implies that each stage of the project should be implemented consequently. In such a way, the organization can solve problems that arise in the course of the implementation of the plan. In such a way, the implementation of the project stages allows to complete the project steadily.
Another project management that can be applied today is the spiral model. This project management model includes the four traditional stages. The project definition includes defining project goals, requirements, and specification. This stage is backed up by the planning stage that includes engineering, proposal, quotation. The project implementation includes design, manufacturing, integration. And finally, the project closure includes handover to operation. In this regard, it is important to point out that the spiral model is interactive. The interactive model focuses on the implementation of each stage of the plan in close interaction with others. The spiral model is interactive model, which implies the close interaction at all stages of the implementation of the plan of the project. This means that each stage of the plan should interact with other stages. In such a way, the project can be implemented successfully as each stage can be changed respectively to changes that occur in other stages.
Thus, taking into account all above mentioned, it is important to place emphasis on the fact that the project management can apply either of the three models applied above.