Mothering institute as typically female was influenced by male domination through the centuries of it development. It has been considered for hundreds of years that mothering is honorable and the single way of women to see themselves fulfilled. The wide spread stereotype that children are the measure of a good mother. Gender difference, male dominance and wife’ stereotype and their century’s patriarchal development produced serious problems in contemporary society. The institution of mothering is measured by socio-dogmatic rules of the past, which influences mothers and their children in a negative way.
Gender problem produced a great impact on mothering and motherhood. From the psychological point of view gender conflicts are among the mostly wide spread in the different types of relations. The contradictory situations and gender conflicts also happen in cases that are strongly connected with mothering and motherhood. What is important to note in this case is that mothering institution is a part of family life. And nowadays when the stereotypes are rapidly broken men become more involved in the children upbringing.
The statement Strong mother – weak wife and weak mother strong wife attracted a number of researches dealing with mothering and motherhood.Â I think that nowadays the theory of weak wife could be supported only by the fact that women becoming wives historically got used to be under the mail suppression: Marriage makes women into wives and gives adult men (not necessarily the biological or social fathers’ of a woman’s child) a measure of control over mothers and children and on the woman’s early primacy in children’s life. I argue that the structure of the husband-wide relationship, considered apart from other, contravening sources of power, tends to define wives as lesser partners in any marriage. From an individual psychological standpoint, this can serve as a defense against the power of women as mothers. From structural stand, marriage institutions tend to be controlled by men and serve to control and organize women’s mothering (Johnson, 4-5).
We see that the whole structure of family relations, including mothering process is some kind of gender confrontation. Unfortunately socially based stereotypes completely support the idea of a strong and controlling male. Historically based theory shows us that men were playing the leading parties in the kind of relations until the feminist revolution. Women started to struggle for equal rights. They promoted equality within the family and working place also. And the results are astonishing.
But the stereotyped social attitude will not be so easy to defend. Social dogmas, taboos and opinions have centuries long history strong dealing with masculine domination and feminine oppression. Here we see, how were formed so called stereotypes and myths about good and bad mothers. Even now in contemporary highly developed society there exists such a strange phenomenon: the father who cares about his children, reads them books and knows the name of his children’s physician is considered to be the saint by all the social layers in contemporary world and if mother do not she is blamed as a sinner. Patriarchal dogmatic is still very strong in the social mind. People perceive any changes slowly and the first reaction on something new is often negative. The first feminist activists struggling for their social and human right were not accepted seriously, but the movement grew and more women became involved.
The same situation happens with gender problem and the male dominance in the family relations in particular mothering. A certain success was achieved and nowadays the problem of male domination and female oppression is studies by psychologists and researches. Oppressive tactics create certain mental and physical discomfort in the family, in many cases it is one of the main reason of growing of the divorce rate.
It may also influence on psychological aspect of further relations of both partners and cause serious psychological damage to the children, brought up in such a family.
In my personal opinion, patriarch state is coming into decay. Dogmas and stereotypes formed during the centuries are becoming the history of family relations development. Slowly and rapidly social attitude and position towards mothering and motherhood is changed. The institutions researching family problems found the solutions for many serious problems, strongly connected with mothering and motherhood but there is still a lot of work to do.