Discuss the political socialization process. In other words, how do we acquire our beliefs?
It is essential to note that political socialization – is “the process of development during which children and adolescents perceive ideas, political attitudes and behavior is typical for this community”¯. In other words, political socialization is reduced to the assimilation of political values and norms necessary to adapt to the prevailing political system and the performance of various kinds of political activity. Political socialization is one of the directions of the general process of socialization of individuals. The main agents of political socialization are such social institutions as education, media, family and others. Large role in the process of political socialization in modern society play politicians and political science as the scientific and educational discipline. We acquire our beliefs with the help of the opinion of others, of new information, of data and statistics. Media and politics play considerable role in the life of society and it determines the point of view and opinion of people. Beliefs are formed from the public opinion, recent news, different facts and the information that is the most interesting to people. As well, positive examples of other countries can form certain beliefs.
Discuss the public view of the government’s role in the area of social welfare.
It should be noted that social welfare is a kind of political and economic organization that puts the state (nation) as an agent of promotion (protector and defender) and organizer of the social economy. In this orientation, the state regulator is the agent of all social life and health, political and economic of the country in partnership with trade unions and private companies, at different levels, according to the nation concerned. The government’s role is to provide public services and protection to the population.
The states of social well-being is developed mainly in Europe, where its principles were defended by democracy and has been implemented with greater intensity in the Scandinavian (or Nordic countries) such as Sweden, Denmark, Norway and Finland), under the guidance of the Swedish economist and sociologist Karl Gunnar Myrdal. The form of political-social organization, which originated from the Great Depression, has developed further with the expansion of the concept of citizenship with the aim of totalitarian governments in Western Europe (Nazism, fascism, etc.). Governments with the hegemony of social- Democrats and, secondly, the current Euro-Communists, based on the idea that social rights are inseparable from the existence of any citizen.
By the rule of well-being, every individual would be entitled from his birth until his death, to a set of goods and services that should have guaranteed supply either directly or indirectly through the state, through its regulatory power on civil society. These rights include education at all levels, free medical care, aid to the unemployed, ensuring a minimum income, additional resources for child rearing, etc. Government’s role in the area of social welfare has to be considerable, with regular improvements and proper changes.
Is public opinion on controversial issues structured differently than on other domestic issues?
It can be said that public opinion on controversial issues is sometimes structured differently than on other domestic issues, as it depends on the situation. Public opinion is extremely important in the United States, as it proves the democracy, gives a chance to changes and improvements. Controversial issues also form an indispensable part of life and public opinion is also distributed on them, and interpreted differently. Sometimes domestic issues are not of such high importance to society as the controversial issues that attract more attention.
How Americans view foreign and defense policy?
Americans understand that foreign and defense policies are among the most important state policies. They are of particular importance to the country considering the circumstances. United States of America have a sophisticated foreign policy, which enshrines the basic principles of “building a safer world”¯ and “spreading democracy for the benefit of the American people and the international community”¯. The United States have played a vital role in international relations, have the most advanced in the world network of diplomatic missions. USA – Founding Member of the United Nations and the North Atlantic Alliance, a member of the UN Security Council. U.S. diplomacy has been very active in the resolution of almost all international conflicts and disputes.
As well, one of the trends in U.S. foreign policy is a policy of “soft power”¯. Soft power ”“ is the ability of the state (Union coalition) to achieve desired outcomes in international affairs through a conviction (attraction), rather than suppression (imposition, coercion). “Soft power”¯ effect is encouraging others to follow (or seeking to follow their own consent, or by making advantageous to follow) certain norms of behavior and institutions in the international arena, which leads its bearers to achieve the desired result with virtually no compulsion (though here, of course may be some involuntary conduct, due to the lack of other alternatives). The policy of “soft power”¯ can be considered a subtle, intangible and available to the public sympathy for America, a sense of superiority over the country.