When considering language and culture as homogenous systems, which differ from each other in substantial and in functional terms, one should bear in mind their close connection, both indirect and direct. In the first case we mean that both phenomena are correlated with the mindset and thus through this are connected indirectly to each other. Being an integral component of thinking, logical and rational understanding of the world, language is involved in all kinds of spiritual production, regardless of whether word is used as a direct instrument of creativity. Materializing the public consciousness, language sign system is a carrier, and therefore the keeper of information, of certain concepts and judgments about the world. It is important to note that the range of this information is almost limitless: from the logical and rational to sensory and emotional perception of the world. The appearance of the appropriate language a sign is preceded by a complex process of preparation and classification of concepts according to the expressive power of a particular language. (Kramsch 2003)
Interacting closely with each other, both phenomena have a large area of the intersection due to the fact that language is an essential mean of objectification and exteriorization of culture, and performs in it the most essential aesthetic function. It should, however, be said that as well as culture has its nonlinguistic scope of implementation, language is used not only in culture but also much wider – in the system of social communication in general.
In culturological literature, as was already noted, language is mostly considered as an instrument of culture, but it limits the importance of language in art, where its role is much more complex and multifaceted. Especially obvious is importance of language in the form of verbal creativity, and above all in literature, where language serves an important aesthetic function, play an important role in the objectification of the artistic image.
Language and culture – that is what characterizes any ethnic group, at whatever stage of evolution it may be. Language and culture distinguish one ethnicity from another, but also they open the ability of communication and even convergence of different ethnic groups. The language of each ethnic group reflects human views of the world and things, attitude toward them. In the sphere of social interaction language acts as a mediator, guide, facilitator, a mean to bring intersubjective and cultural significance to the subjective, individual experience, broadcast socially important representations, such representations give universally common meaning.
The most serious problem of communication lies in the transfer of meaning from one language to another, each of which has a number of semantic and grammatical features. In cultural studies this problem of efficiency of the cultural dialogue is presented as a “vertical” (between the cultures of different eras) , and “horizontal” ( the dialogue of different cultures that interact with each other), is interpreted as a problem of understanding. The term “understanding” is used in two ways, as a factor in the intellectual, cognitive, but also as empathy, a feeling. Understanding of the complexity stems from the fact that perception and behavior are determined by stereotypes – the ideological, national, class, sex, formed in humans from childhood. Understanding is apperseptive, that is new information is assimilated by reference to what is already known, new knowledge and new experiences are included in the system of knowledge that already exists, on this basis goes the selection, enrichment and classification of material.