Buddha was primarily a teacher of ethics and reformer. The young Siddhartha was amazed pinned pictures of human suffering – disease, old age and death. However, the enlightened Buddha saw not just and not only these pictures, but the very material conditions of life of people and animals, without exception, causing unhappiness.
Birth, old age, sickness, death, grief, sadness, desire, despair in short, everything to do with is generated by the attachment to the earth, is suffering. Pessimism of this kind is inherent in all Indian philosophical systems, and to emphasize the special importance of the first noble truth of the Buddha supported all the major Indian thinkers. Somebody can reject any general condemnation of the Buddha, the worldly life and points to different sources of pleasure exist in life, along with the sources of suffering. But the Buddha and many other thinkers could object to them on this, that worldly pleasures seem happy to just short-sighted people. Brevity of these pleasures, sorrow, difficulties encountered in their loss, the eternal fear of losing them, and other severe consequences overshadow all the joys of life and turn them into genuine sources of fear and grief. Although the existence of suffering is recognized by all Indian thinkers, but in determining this in the abnormal phenomena are not always unanimous. The origin of evil is explained by the Buddha with a special concept of natural causation. According to this theory, it is not unconditional – it all depends on certain conditions. Each event is generated by certain conditions; there must be something, a being which gives rise to suffering. Earthly sufferings, the Buddha teaches, arise from the fact of birth. If man was not born, he was not aware of these painful states. Birth, in turn, is motivated by the desire for becoming, the force of blind desire or predisposition to birth. But what causes this desire? Our commitment to the mental (“setting”ť) to earthly things is the condition of our desires to be born. This commitment, in turn, arises from our thirst, longing to enjoy the objects of the external world: sights, sounds, etc. After all, we can not aspire to have things that we have not tried, have not seen before. Previous sensory experience brightened up some pleasant sensations, is the cause of lust, longing. But perceptual experience is impossible without a common ground, without contact between the senses and objects. Contact, in turn, could arise if there were six bodies of knowledge: the five senses and mind. The presence of six bodies E1ih external knowledge depends on the bodily and spiritual body, which is perceived by human being. But this organism could not develop in the womb and be born, if he was dead, that is devoid of consciousness.
Consciousness is the same, which is part of the fetus still in the womb is Julia result of the impressions of our past life. The latter stage (state), our past life, a stage that preceded our present life, in turn, contains a concentrated form all the impressions, the results of all previous and past deeds. Experiences that lead to a new birth stem from ignorance of the truth. If transient, full of suffering nature of earthly existence was quite know man, if only we could be karma, generating a new birth. Ignorance, therefore, is the root cause of impressions that is striving for a new birth. Here is a brief formula of causal dependence: 1) the suffering in their lives due to the birth, and 2) the birth – the desire for life; 3) desire for existence – mental attachment to objects, and 4) affection, lust, desire things; 5) thirst – sensory perception, 6) perception – sensory contact with the objects, and 7) sensual touch – with six bodies of knowledge; 8) six organs knowledge-embryonic period of development of the body (consisting of mind and body), 9), the embryo can not develop without the initial awareness, 10) initial impressions of consciousness due to a past life; 11), these impressions are due to the twelfth link in the chain – 12) ignorance of the truth.
The Third Noble Truth is the cessation of suffering – a consequence of the second: that the unhappiness depends on certain conditions. Try to clear idea of the true nature of the state, called the cessation of suffering. First of all, it should be noted that the liberation from suffering is attainable in this life, unless certain conditions are satisfied. When ultimate control over the passions and the constant thinking about truth lead one through four degrees abstractedly to the perfect wisdom (which will be discussed below), then he is freed from the power of earthly passions. He broke the ties that bind it with the world. Thus he becomes a free, liberated. Such a person says that he became a respectable person. This condition is often called the release of Nirvana – extinction of passion, and with them, and suffering. Then it must be remembered that the achievement of this state does not mean the state of inactivity, as many mistakenly think. It is true that to achieve a perfect, clear and reliable knowledge of the quadripartite truth be completely distracted from the outer and inner world, as well as other ideas and concentrate entirely on the relentless contemplation of the four noble truths in all their aspects. But, having reached perfect wisdom through focused thinking, free man should always remain immersed in meditation and completely withdraw from active participation in life.
We know the active life led the Buddha himself within forty-five years after his enlightenment – wandering, preaching and founding the Brotherhood, even in the last days of his life, being an octogenarian. Thus, for most of the founder of Buddhism, liberation did not mean the cessation of activity. The Buddha once clearly pointed out that there are two kinds of human actions: one committed under the influence of attachment, hatred and blindness, others – without their influence. The actions of the first kind, reinforcing our thirst for life and devotion to her, give rise to the seeds of karma, which causes new birth. The actions of the second kind, committed to understanding the true essence of being deprived of affection, do not generate karma, and hence the new birth. The difference between the two kinds of karma is the results from the usual crop of grain and grain sterile. 1. This same lesson is given to them in the story of his enlightenment 2. Reaching Nirvana, the Buddha for some time doubted: whether to disseminate his teachings, whether it should work for the liberation of neighbors? But he was soon enlightened heart pounding hot love to countless covered by the torments of suffering. He decided that he built with the efforts of a raft on which he swam the stream of suffering, should be left to others and should not disappear 3. Consequently, as the Buddha by personal example and his precepts, from Arhat not require any activity on the contrary, as the enlightenment of his love and compassion for all living things grow and force reached the perfection of man to share his knowledge with others and work for their moral growth.
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Davidson, Ronald M. (2003). “Indian Esoteric Buddhism: A Social History of the Tantric Movement”ť. New York: Columbia University Press.