The problem of this research have an actual character in modern society. The frequent study of heaved up questions testifies to it. Theme connected with union and public social movements studied on a joint at once a few associate disciplines. For the modern state of science passing is characteristic to global problem consideration of subject social movements. The great number of works is devoted to research questions. Mainly material, expounded in educational literature, carries general character, and in numerous monographs on this subject more narrow questions of problem are considered. However, the account of modern terms is required at research of issue on the marked theme. High meaningfulness and insufficient practical developed of problem determine the necessity of this research.
Let’s look through the main notion and find the answer on the question about this term meaning. Social and political movements are voluntarily, self-controlled forming, created on initiative of people, uniting on the basis of community interests for realization their general aims. Movement, as a rule, structurally is not designed. At community of interests there can be people with different thoughts and point of views in it. Aims and tasks of social and political movements are mobile, often not concrete, constantly mutate and broaden. The wide mass and mobile list of entries, wide social base, organizational, ideological and spiritually-mental friability and instability of its participants have a place in social union Russian movements. There is not the fixed retention in movement. In obedience to the Federal law from April, 14, 1995, “public movement is a consisting of participants and not having membership mass public association, pursuing social, political and other publicly useful aims, supported the participants of public movement”ť.
So, will consider a legal base, regulating a right for the citizens of Russia on realization of public measures. This right is constitutional, basis of its legal maintenance today is initially fastened in the article of 31, Constitution of Russian Federation 1993.
Now I’d like to stop on the history of social movements with more detail and analyze some of them. There were different movement in Russia, some of them were more active and that’s why more popular; some of them were known only in specific circles. In the next paragraph I want to stop on several of them.
With receipts to the power Brezhnev management became be felt tightening of the political climate, intolerance of the powers to manifestations of the free thought. Exactly at that times appeared the threat to reanimations of Stalinism. In ambience scientific and creative intellectuals, national minority started to appear the integer of the group uncoordinated with cut and openly raised an objection to jamming civil liberties. This is an informal public movement, appeared in the middle of 60th years and put on the first place protection rights of the people, has got the name dissident movement.
As a day of the protection movement births it is possible to consider the December 5, 1965, when on Pushkin square first demonstration took place in Moscow under the right Â protectionsÂ slogan. We know that not only this movement appeared that time. Parallel to it appeared without censorship seal (the underground publication). The typescript known dissidents and right protectionists were popular among the movement participants and these work were written by hand.
The new stage of development of dissident and right protection movement was get on a period 1968-1976. From newspapers, magazines progressively intellectual editors, journalists was discharged. Censorship was toughened.
End of 60th – 70th marked persecution many soviet historians, whosesoever works were written into the ratified canons of official ideology. Literary works, disagreeable the mode, were not published. Movies remained on shelves, not reaching to the wide publicity. From the side of the Ministry of culture was exposedÂ hard Â control under theÂ all theatre activity.
In such terms one creative personalities went away in their own imagined world, in private life, other emigrated.
There is a prosecution in 1965 writers of Julius Daniel and Andrea Sinyavskij for a publication after a border literary works.Â Political process in January, 1968 above right protectionistÂ A. Ginsburg and J. Galanskov influenced on organizational registration of civilÂ to activity for part of dissidents in the USSR. Dissident and right protectionists Â groups began to acquire the lines of public movement.
In the end of 60th the basic flows of dissidents united in “Democratic movements”ť with the not determined structure, presenting three “ideologies”ť, arising up in the period after Stalin.
I want to mention that there were created a lot of social movements direction and each of them had their own points of views and their active participants.
Transformation to the political system of Russian society 1990th allowed to fill with public relations the new real maintenance as different institutes of modern democracy. It, foremost, touches passing for all of plenitude power its unique transmitter – multinational Russian people. In addition, got development and other institutes of democracy, concomitant power creating, to one of which – to the right for the citizens of Russia on holding meeting, mass meetings, demonstrations, processions and picketing (further to on a text generalized “right on public measures”ť) – the real research was devoted. Basic attention is spared opening of legal maintenance of this democratic institute, as today, exactly, on understanding of Russia of his legal essence citizens his filling with the civilized (within the framework of world standards) legal maintenance and providing of the real mechanisms for its political processes realization.
Summarizing a result of aforesaid, it would be desirable to mark that a right on the undertaking of public measures is one of basic rights of citizens, determining their individual and collective freedom, and also is one of forms of direct and primary democracy. At the same time, information above talks that in its legal adjusting today there are more questions, than answers. An output is seen in passing a proper act, in basis of which it is necessary to take into account such basic moments: determination of concept to each of public forms measures, to specify the judicial notification order of undertaking of one or another form of public measures, differentiate responsibility for violations governed.