Historically, social status, level of income, ethnic background and race influenced consistently the part identification and party loyalty. In this respect, the impact of social status, level of income and race on the party identification and party loyalty has hardly changed within the last fifty years.
In this respect, it should be said that traditionally representatives of lower social classes, who have a low level of income were in a disadvantageous position compared to representatives of the middle and upper class. In fact, representatives of lower social classes were underrepresented in the political life of the country, while their participation in politics was insignificant because of the apathy and unwillingness of the poor to participate in politics, which systematically failed to change their social status and their life for better.
The similar trend was typical to representatives of ethnic and racial minorities. Moreover, as a rule, ethnic minorities comprised lower social class and had a low level of income. In such a situation, ethnic minorities turned out to be in a particularly disadvantageous position, while their representation was insignificant.
Naturally, significant changes have occurred in political life of the country within the last fifty years. For instance, the number of representatives of ethnic minorities in politics has increased, but it is important to emphasize that the increase of representation occurred due to the change of social status of representatives of ethnic minorities who were elected or took an office.
As a result, representatives of lower social class and ethnic minorities traditionally identified themselves with Democrats who stood on the socially responsible policies, while Republicans traditionally stood for interests of the middle and upper classes.