Simon/Peter is also known as St Peter, who was one of Twelve Apostles of Jesus Christ. He was the first disciple chosen by Jesus Christ. He was one of the most active followers of Jesus Christ and after the death of the latter, Peter continued spreading Christianity throughout the Roman Empire. His ministry lasted for thirty years and he accomplished numerous missions in the Asia Minor, Greece and other parts of the Roman Empire where he was preaching. At the same time, he was one of the leaders of the early Christian Church. Eventually, he was crucified upside down in Rome because he said that he was not worthy to die as Jesus did. In such a way, Peter laid the foundation to the Christian Church
Paul/Saul is one of the Twelve Apostles of Jesus Christ. Together with Peter and James the Just he was one of the most notable of early Christian missionaries. However, unlike other Twelve Apostles, there are no indications that Paul had ever met Jesus Christ in person.
Nevertheless, he was a devoted adept of Jesus’ teaching and worked on spreading his ideas in the Roman Empire and building up the Christian Church. He is considered to be the author of the fourteenth epistle in the New Testament. Moreover, his influence is believed to be the most on the early Christianity. At any rate, the medieval theologians, such as St. Augustine of Hippo indicated to his crucial role to the development of Christianity and the Christian Church.
New Testament is the second major division of the Christian Bible. The New Testament consists of 27 books which were collected in the process of the formation of the early Christianity and basically it was created after Jesus Christ. The New Testament includes four narratives of Jesus Christ’s ministry, called “Gospels”ť, a narrative of the Apostles’ ministries in the early Christian Church, which is also a sequel to the third Gospel, and twenty-one letters, commonly called epistles in Biblical context, written by various authors and consisting mostly of Christian counsel and instructions.Â Finally, the New Testament contains an Apocalyptic prophecy, which is technically twenty-second epistle and which predicts the end of the world.
Constantine was the Roman emperor, who was the founder of the Eastern Roman Empire. He was renowned for his contribution in the strengthening of political and economic power of the Eastern Roman Empire, but he was particularly honored for the development of Christianity which became the official religion of the Empire under his rule.
St Augustine of Hippo was an outstanding philosopher and theologian. He was a Latin church father and one of the most important figures in the development of western Christianity. Augustine was heavily influenced by Neo-Platonism and framed the concept of original sin and just war. He paid a particular attention to the development of church and spread of Christian faith in the world. His theological works contributed to the strengthening of western Christianity. One of the fundamental concepts developed by Augustine was the concept of the City of God, which he distinguished from the City of Man. His ideas and philosophy produced a considerable impact on the development of medieval worldview. After his death, Augustine was sainted.
Arians were the followers of the theologian teaching developed by Arius, who was ruled a heretic by the Christian church at the Counsel of Nicea. Arians supported ideas developed by Arius, including the most controversial ideas, which actually led to his expel from the Christian Church. In this respect, it is worth mentioning teaching on the relationship of God the Father and the person of Jesus, for Arians believed that Jesus was not of one substance with the Father and that there had been a time before he existed.