In accordance with the concept of protecting the atmosphere, adopted in some industrialized countries (for example, Germany), air pollution is considered a direct or indirect introduction into it of any substance in such quantity that affects the quality and composition of ambient air, harming people, living and inanimate nature, ecosystems, building materials, natural resources – the entire environment. In accordance with this definition of air pollution, there should be included a release of large amounts of water vapor from cooling towers of power stations, if this led to a deterioration of visibility due to fog, the formation of black ice on roads, improvement of the corrosion atmosphere, etc, as described in The Causes, Effects & Solutions for Air Pollution.
The Convention on the vast interstate air pollution, in addition to air emissions of material particles, are also causing damage to the energy emissions. Consequently, emissions of heat noise vibration and radiation (not only radioactive, but also electromagnetic, such as microwave, radar, ultrahigh, for example, those that are emitted by high-voltage lines, etc.) can be considered forms of pollution. The problem of environmental pollution becomes very acute as in- for the growth of industrial and agricultural production, and due to a qualitative change in production under the influence of science technological progress.
Many metals and alloys, used by a person in unknown nature in its pure form, although they are to some extent are subject to disposal and secondary use, some of them are dispersed, accumulate in the biosphere in as waste. The problem of environmental pollution in the full-length rose once in the XX century. People have substantially increased the number of the used metal, began to produce synthetic fibers, plastics and other substances with properties that are not only not known nature, but harmful to the organisms of the biosphere. These substances (number and variety is constantly increasing) after their use are not available in a natural cycle. Wastes from production activities more pollute the lithosphere, hydrosphere and atmosphere. Adaptive mechanisms in biosphere can not cope with the increasing amount of neutralization harmful to its normal functioning substances, and natural systems begin to crumble, as stated in Solutions for pollution.
Man pollutes the atmosphere for millennia. In recent years, different places of heavy air pollution have been associated with the expansion centers of industry, with technical issues in many areas of our lives, successful motorization. Indeed harmful substances into the air can increase their mutual reactions among themselves, the accumulation in the mountains, the long duration of their stay in the air, and special weather conditions other factors. In areas where there is high population density, cluster of factories, large saturation of transport, pollution of air especially increases. It requires urgent and radical measures. In days when due to weather conditions air circulation is limited, it could occur. Smog is particularly dangerous for the elderly and sick people.
Photochemical haze or smog is a multi component mixture gases and aerosol particles of the primary and secondary origin. The composition of the main components of smog include: ozone, nitrogen oxides and sulfur numerous organic compounds peroxide nature, called in Photo-oxidant combination. Photochemical smog is the result of photochemical reactions under certain conditions: the presence in the atmosphere high concentrations of nitrogen oxides, hydrocarbons and other pollutants, intense solar radiation and no wind or very poor air exchange in the surface layer with a powerful and, for at least a day, increased inversion. Stable, windless weather is usually accompanied by inversions required to produce high concentrations of the reacting substances. Such conditions are usually between June and September and less frequently in winter. In periods when pollution is high, many people complain of headaches, eye irritation and nasal, nausea, etc. The presence of acid mist, mainly sulfuric acid is correlated with increased frequency of asthma attacks, but because of carbon monoxide occurs weakening of mental activity, drowsiness and headaches. With high levels of suspensions, acting for a long time, link respiratory diseases and lung cancer. However, all these factors may affect differently on different aspects of health. In some cases, air pollution has reached such high levels that led to deaths.
Each of the global problems discussed here has its own options partial or complete solution, there is a set of common approaches to solving environmental problems.
As described in How to solve air pollution, measures to improve the quality of the environment:
* Development of new technologies;
* Wastewater Treatment Plant;
* Replacement of fuel;
* Electrification of production, household, transport.
2. Architecture- planning activities:
* Zoning settlement;
* Planting trees in places;
* Organization of sanitary protection zones;
* Creation of legislation to maintain;
5. Engineer- organizational:
* Decrease in parking area at traffic lights;
* Reduction in the intensity of traffic;
* Congested highways
In addition, over the past century mankind has developed a number of original ways of dealing with environmental problems. These methods include the formation and activities of various “green”ť movements and organizations. In addition to “Green Peace”ť, differing scale their activities, there are similar organizations directly conducting environmental action. Also, there is another type of environmental Organizations: structures that encourage and sponsor environmental activities (WWF), as described in 5 Steps to Clean Up Air Pollution.
In addition to all sorts of associations in the field of environmental issues, there are a number of state or public environmental Initiatives: environmental legislation in countries all over the world, various international agreements or the system of the “Red List”ť.