Behaviorism – is the direction in psychology, which shaped an American psychology in the 20th century, radically transform the whole system of ideas about the psyche. Its credo expressed formula according to which the subject psychology is behavior, not consciousness. Since then, it was decided to equate the mentality and consciousness (mentally counting processes that begin and end in mind), there was a version though, eliminating consciousness, behaviorism, thus eliminating the psyche. The founder of this direction in psychology was an American psychologist John Â Watson.
In the second half of the 20th century, behaviorism largely was given a way to cognitive psychology, but many of the ideas of behaviorism are used in certain areas of psychology, particularly in therapy.
Behaviorism initiated the emergence and development of various psychological and psychotherapeutic schools, such as neobehaviorism, cognitive psychology, behavioral therapy. There are many practical applications of behaviorist psychological theory, including in remote areas of psychology. Nowadays, such studies continue to study the science of animal behavior and human – ethology, using other methods (for example, ethology much less gives the reflections, assuming that innate behavior is more important for the study).
The psychology is framed in different areas of science. It is not possible to pigeonhole consensus between the natural sciences, social sciences or humanities. The discipline embraces all the complex aspects of human psychic functioning. The different schools, theories and psychological systems have focused their efforts in various areas, existing from approaches that focus exclusively on observable behavior (behaviorism), through which deal with internal processes such as thinking, reasoning, memory, etc. Cognitivism and the guidelines emphasize human relationships and communication based on systems theory, to the psychological systems that focus on unconscious processes (such as psychoanalysis or analytical psychology.) The scope of the theories covered areas or fields from the study of child development psychology to how humans feel, perceive or think, how they learn to adapt to their environment and resolve conflicts, according to Theoretical Perspectives of Psychology (2010).
For other authors, such as the Anglo-Saxon academic stream Behavioural sciences, the field of action research and scientific psychology is uniquely human behavior, distinguishing only three areas: behavioral science, cognitive science and neuroscience.
As a scientific discipline, it records the interactions of personality on three dimensions: cognitive, affective and behavioral. It is controversial whether other dimensions (such as moral, social and spiritual, including religious beliefs) of human experience or are not part of the field of psychology, as well, to what extent addressing such issues may be considered by the scientist.
The identified subdisciplines and subtopics can be applied to other disciplines and venues in contemporary society. Nowadays, everything is interconnected, and if some things are being changes, they will influence other disciplines in the future. It should be noted that the theory and practice differ very much, and there are different approaches that appear and change the trends and the perceptions of the subject.
There are different theoretical perspectives in psychology, for example Behavioral, Cognitive, and Social. Cognitive psychology ”“ is a section of psychology that studies the cognitive, for example the cognitive processes of human consciousness. Research in this area are usually related to issues of memory, attention, feelings, providing information, logical thinking, imagination, the ability to make decisions.
Many of the provisions of cognitive psychology underlie modern psycholinguistics. This trend has arisen under the influence of information approach. Cognitive psychology is based largely on an analogy between the transformation of information in computing devices and the implementation of cognitive processes in humans.
Considering the social perspective, this means how we view the social phenomena. Individuals and actions influence our behavior. The current approaches, schools, or sociological movements are so many different practices and views on the nature of sociology or some of its aspects. This may not give a single definition acceptable to all. If there are now several sociological traditions, none can claim to summarize the sociological activity alone, or describe the activity of sociological consensus. Sociological theories are complex theoretical frameworks. Sociologists use them to explain and to analyze how different social action, social processes, social structures”¦ and work. They are sometimes called social theories, although the posterior limit generally refers to the interdisciplinary theory. In seeking to understand society, sociologists use sociological theory and interdisciplinary social theories to organize social research.
All in all, psychology has a diverse nature, especially nowadays. “Understanding the different theoretical perspectives of psychology takes us nearer to the understanding of the complex human nature. It takes us closer to the comprehension of the development of the different types of personalities around us.”ť