The Ice Age is a period of long-term lowering of the temperature. Such climate changes resulted the movements of the continental ices over the Eurasian and the American continents. The scientists state that there were at least 4 ice ages during the human history. The earliest one they date from 2.7 to 2.3 billions years ago. The next one is dated from 800 to 600 million years ago. The latest Ice Age finished about 10, 000 years ago.
Homo habilis is the first known human species. The term “habilis”¯ is translated as handy or skillful. This species of the genus Homo lived approximately of 2,4 and 1,8 million years ago. This man lived at the territory of South and East Africa. Homo habilis is the first species of the Homo genus. The characteristics of this man differ from those of modern man most of all. This man had short body and disproportionately long hands. Homo habilis had smaller molars and larger brains in comparison to his predecessor called the Australopithecines. From the other side the face of Homo habilis became more alike to the face of the modern man in comparison to earlier species. This man used tools made of stone and animal bones.
Homo erectus is the predecessor of the modern human. This species appeared in eastern Africa. The date of his appearance in approximately defined as 1.8 million years ago.Ā In comparison to earlier Homos, Homo erectus had smaller jaw, smaller molars, better stature and larger brain. Homo erectus had greater intellectual abilities and addition to better stamina. Homo erectus became the first human species who left the African continent and moved to Europe and Asia.
Homo Sapiens is a Homo genus, who lived from 200,000 years ago till present times. The term “sapiens”¯ means wise or intelligent. Homo sapiens came to change Homo erectus. In comparison to Homo erectus Homo sapiens developed a better technology of stone elaboration and showed other signs of higher development. “Sapien”¯ means the intelligence that differentiates humans from other animals. The ability to think, understand and make conclusion, as well as emotive characteristics make Homo sapiens different from other genus species. Some researches state that intelligence is not a unique quality peculiar to humans. They call the ability to speak and communicate to be the unique characteristics of Homo sapiens. “Speech was a veritable nuclear weapon! It gave the human beast the powers of reason, complex memory, and long-term planning, eventually in the form of print and engineering plans.”¯ (Wolfe) The size of the brain of Homo sapiens is the biggest in comparison to all other species.
The skull became more rounded in comparison to Homo erectus.