The earliest known civilizations appeared in the regions called Mesopotamia and it was inhabited by people called Shumerians. Mesopotamia is used to describe the territory between the Tigris and the Euphrates rivers, situated on the territory of modern Iraq. From 3000 to 2000 BC Mesopotamia was inhabited by Shumerians.
Even the term Mesopotamia is translated like the land between two rivers. The first settlements appeared to the north but later spread to the plain on the south. The southern lands were more fertile though there was comparatively less rain. In addition floods destroyed harvests and even homes of people. People lived in small settlements with developed agriculture. Fertile Mesopotamian lands gave people enough food to settle and start the process of so called urbanization. This finally led to the growth of population. Producing food and defending required cooperation and people started to form communities in order to live and work together. Development of tools simplified the process of food collecting and production and this led to the appearance of different labor. This way the labor division appeared. Soon small villages were transformed into city-states, which formed independent political entities. By the 3000 BC Mesopotamia started looking for the expanding of the trade links and in this way came in contact with other Asian countries. The Tigris and the Euphrates were used as trade and transportation routes. The Mesopotamian civilization made a prominent success in the development of agriculture, building techniques, and crafts. The first writing system had been developed in Mesopotamia. Shumerians developed a pictographic writing and this became the first writing system of the world.