Historically, theAmazon Riverregion played a vitally important role in the normal functioning of the entire planet. It is worthy of mention that often this region is symbolically called the Lungs of the Earth. By this symbolic name the major function of this area and its significance to the planet is revealed since the local nature, wildlife, and forests are, to a significant extent, unique and, what is more, extremely important to the normal life and even survival of the entire planet because the local forests are an important source of Oxygen which share in the atmosphere of the planet gradually declines. By the way, the latter is consistently related to the current situation in theAmazon Riverregion since this environmentally important region faces a serious threat of the progressive destruction. To put it more precisely, in the modern era, the region faces a bunch of environmental problems that threatens to the survival of the local unique nature, wildlife and forests. As a result, nowadays, the problem of deforestation and wildlife extinction is not only the problem of Latin American countries, especiallyBrazil, but it is the problem of the entire world.
On analyzing the current situation in theAmazon Riverregion, it should be said that the environmental situation in the region is extremely disturbing. In fact, the problem of deforestation is a rapidly progressing challenge the local government should cope with in possibly shorter terms because the forest cuts consistently outweigh the planting of new ones and natural recovery of the area.
At the same time, the problem of deforestation naturally leads to the general deterioration of the environmental situation in the region and other ecological problems among which the problem of wildlife extinction is probably one of the most severe because the Amazon River region has really unique wildlife and any loss here is disastrous because it can hardly be recovered somehow.
In such a situation, it is necessary to underline that both problems, the problem of deforestation and wildlife extinction are closely related and have similar roots. To put it more precisely, the major factor that leads to the deforestation of the region and the extinction of the local wildlife is human activity. In this respect, it is possible to single out several domains where human activities are particularly disastrous in relation to the local nature. First of all, it is the agricultural activities of the local population. It should be said that historicallyBrazil, as well as other countries ofLatin America, was an agricultural country. Moreover, the methods of agriculture used in this country were quite traditional, if not to say primitive since the national agriculture was historically focused on extensive way of the development. In practice, this means that the share of cultivated lands steadily increased and the more the local agriculture progressed the more lands were needed for cultivation. In such a situation, theAmazon Riverforests became the target land for cultivation and, therefore, forests were cut and, consequently, the wildlife destroyed. It is only in recent years, due to the industrial development of the country and implementation of new technologies and techniques, the local agriculture has acquired intensive features, though extensive way of the development is still relevant, especially in remote areas.
However, the industrialization brought not only new technologies and methods in agriculture but also contributed considerably to the deforestation and the extinction of the wildlife in the region. One of the major reasons for deforestation is the forests cut since timber is exporting to other countries of the world and a part of it is consumed withinBrazil. Furthermore, the development of industries leads to the growing need in well-developed infrastructure that implies the building of roads and, therefore, implies deforestation since free areas for infrastructure are needed.
Finally, the industrial pollution of theAmazon Riverregion also deteriorates the reproductive potential of the local forests and wildlife.
Naturally, in such a situation, the local government attempts to establish a thorough control over forests cut leading to both deforestation and wildlife extinction. The government attempts to control forests cut by means of special quotas and licenses for deforestation-related activities. However, its efforts are insufficient because of the lack of financial and material resources and huge area that is covered by forests, though the latter problem will be “naturally”¯ solved if the forests cut and wildlife extinction is not stopped right now.
In this respect, it is possible to refer to the experience of other countries to solve similar problems in order to find new ways to the solution of this problem inBrazil. For instance, in Russia Siberian and Far Eastern regions face the similar problem. Actually, this historical there and in the past the state managed to cope with this problem relatively successfully by means of a total control from the part of a state over forests cut. As a result, the forests cut other but state was simply forbidden in the past that led to relatively low level of deforestation, at least, compared to the modern epoch. The same experience may be applied inBrazilthat will considerably solve the problem of unlicensed forests cut.
At the same time, it is also possible to recommend making the punishment for the violation of environmental laws in the region more severe that can make this activity economically unprofitable. Also, it is necessary to develop programs of recovery of the local forests after forests cut which should be more selective. What is meant here is the necessity to cut not all but only few trees in order to maintain the natural recovery potential of forests. Finally, it is necessary to plant new trees instead of cut ones.
However, such programs apparently need considerable funding whileBrazilis a developing country and it can hardly afford the anti-deforestation programs leading to the prevention of wildlife extinction, independently being left on its own. It is worthy of mention that economical factors are the major causes of the deforestation and wildlife extinction because forests cut occurs basically because of economic factors and attempt to increase profits of the state and national companies. This is why the country will apparently need international financial support in order to prevent and solve the problem of deforestation and wildlife extinction.
Thus, taking into account all above mentioned, it is possible to conclude that the problem of deforestation and wildlife extinction is very serious and should be solved on the international level not only because Brazil cannot solve this problem independently, but also because these problems threatens to the international community and normal functioning of the entire planet.