Question 1: Identify the people generally responsible for carrying out planned change efforts. What factors will influence who is allocated these responsibilities?
The top management of the company is usually responsible for and the initiator of the planned organizational changes. The main factors that influence such decision on the needed change are the internal problems that organization faces and also the external changes in the environment that organization has to respond to in order to be competitive, to keep it’s market share, etc.
Question 2: In Lewin’s model of change, what brings about the proposed change? Explain why there have to be variations made, over a period of time, to the original model.
The proposed change in Lewin’s model is caused by the influence of forces that are pushing for change. In order to modify the current state of any organization and to solve its problems, the change is required; it’s an obligatory condition or all the organizations.
But this change should planned and not immediate.
Question 3: Describe the three sequential steps in Lewin’s change model. Give a current example where Lewin’s model is evident.
Change process, in accordance to Lewin, consists of the three steps: unfreezing, moving and refreezing.
The first step is unfreezing that means the process of change’s awakening through the “psychological disconfirmation”ť. At this stage the members of organization have to be motivated to take part in the change’s process.
The second step is moving, which helps to bring the organizational behavior to a new developed level. It forms a new standards, behaviors and values.
And, finally, the last step is refreezing. This step freezes the new, developed state of organizations and reinforces it via organizational rules, culture, and structure.
A current example of Lewin’s model in my opinion can be noticed in such companies as BP and General Motors. Both companies are faced with noticeable organizational changes due to the external and internal factors.
Question 4: What is action research and its step? What is the relationship between action research and organization development?
Action research defines changes as a cyclical process. This cycle includes considerable collaboration of all the elements of the organization.
The action research includes the following steps:
– Problem identification that involves the participation of the top management.
– Consultation with behavioral science expert; this step includes the consultation of the organizational change practitioner and the client.
– – Data gathering and analysis consist of information’s gathering and its analysis in order to define the reasons of organizational problems.
– Feedback to the client. At this stage, client receives the information that helps to define the strengths and weaknesses of organization.
– Joint diagnosis of a problem ”“ at this stage the feedback has being discussed, the basic data is summarized
– Action, that provides the real changes from original state to another, an improved one.
– Data gathering after action ”“ because if to the cyclic nature of the change process, the data is due to be analyzed after changes have been implemented, in order to estimate the effect.
Question 5: Name the four basic steps in gathering data. What is the purpose of gathering that data?
The basic step in the data gathering are: the determination of the subject of change, the next step is the gathering of the information about strong sides of the organization, then the themes should be indentified and examined.
Question 6: Action Research is described as a collaborative activity. What are the key stages when joint client / OD practitioner action is required?
The main stages when the participation of the joint client is required are the feedback to the group of client representatives and also the joint diagnosis and joint action planning
Waddel, Cummings, Worley (2011) Organizational Change, Development & Transformation (Aisa Pacific 4th Edition), Cengage Learning, South Melbourne, ISBN 9 780170 185950.