The conventional sewage systems are not very efficient today because the impact on the environment is constantly growing and conventional sewage system cannot provide the recycling of wastewaters efficiently. In such a situation, the introduction of alternatives is essential, especially when the use of conventional sewage systems is impossible.
In this respect, it is possible to suggest several alternatives to conventional sewage systems. First of all, it is possible to improve the quality of filtration of the wastewater due to the construction of advanced material media filtration systems. These systems may include sand beds, filter beds, peat filters, synthetic textile filters, rotating biological contractor systems, trickling filters, foam media filters including above-ground self-contained systems. Basically, such systems allow filtering wastewater minimizing its negative impact on the environment.
Furthermore, it is possible to improve existing disinfection systems. To put it more precisely, it is possible to introduce disinfection systems which perform a final treatment of effluent by use of disinfection chemicals, such as chlorine, or ultraviolet light so that effluent can be discharged to the surface or to ground or even to streams and waterways. Such disinfection systems can be very helpful to prevent the spread of dangerous elements through wastewater.
Finally, it is possible to use waterless and low-water or graywater-separation systems. Even though these systems may not really treat effluent, may not discharge anything into the environment, but these systems form another set of alternatives to conventional sewage systems where water supply or land use restrictions mean that a conventional system is not permitted. Among such systems, it is possible to name composting toilets, chemical toilets, and graywater systems.
Thus, alternatives mentioned above can minimize the negative impact of wastewater on the environment.