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Home arrow MLA Citation format arrow CMS Citation format
CMS Citation format

Footnotes and endnotes are another form of documentation used in research papers. Sometimes referred to as the Chicago Style or CMS (after the University of Chicago's Manual of Style), footnotes and endnotes are often used in business, the fine arts, and the sciences to indicate the source of materials the writer incorporated into a research paper.

What Are Footnotes and Endnotes?

A footnote is a bibliographic reference indicated by a number in the text. The complete citation is then placed at the bot­tom ("foot") of the same page. A footnote is normally flagged by a superscript number following that portion of the text the note refers to. Use 1 for the first footnote, 2 for the second footnote, and so on. Continue the numbering throughout the entire paper; do not start new numbers on each page.

'First footnote 2Second footnote

An endnote is identical in form to a footnote. The only difference is the placement: all endnotes are placed at the end of the paper on a separate page labeled "Endnotes."

 

Never mix both footnotes and endnotes; choose one method or the other.

Examples

The following examples illustrate internal documentation (Modern Language Association (MLA) style) and the use of footnotes (Chicago style).

Internal Documentation

Despite the increasing role of women in the documentation work­force, most women remain in jobs traditionally defined as "women's work." Some employers see women as temporary fix­tures in the labor force, predicting they will leave for reasons of marriage or child rearing. These employers tend to shuttle women into jobs where there is little or no room for advancement. (Thompson 65).

 

Footnote

Despite the increasing role of women in the documentation workforce, most women remain in jobs traditionally defined as "women's work." Some employers see women as temporary fix­tures in the labor force, predicting they will leave for reasons of marriage or child rearing. These employers tend to shuttle women into jobs where there is little or no room for advancement.1

1 Roger Eggert, "Women's Economic Equality," Time 21 May 2007: 65.

Why Use Footnotes and Endnotes!

Use footnotes/endnotes in your research papers when you

are required to document information without using internal documentation.

want to add observations and comments that do not fit into your text.

 

 

Most research papers in the humanities use internal doc­umentation to give credit to sources. However, some instruc­tors prefer footnotes or endnotes to internal documentation. Use the method your audience or instructor prefers.

 

USING FOOTNOTES/ENDNOTESTO DOCUMENT SOURCES Examples

Text of Paper

The dramatic increase in women's labor force participation has gen­erated a great deal of public interest, resulting in both social and economic consequences.1

Footnote or Endnote

'Gregory Brown, Women and Sex Roles: A Psychological Viewpoint (New York: Dutton, 2007) 126.

Text of Paper

As the women's movement gained momentum and two-income families became a necessity for attaining middle-class status, polls taken between 1972 and 1997 indicate that the approval of married women working outside the home has steadily increased.2

 

Footnote or Endnote

l8The Woodrow Wilson Professor of Literature at Princeton University, Baker devoted seven years to the preparation of his acclaimed biography of Hemingway.

Guidelines for Using Footnotes/Endnotes

Method

Choose either endnotes or footnotes. As mentioned earlier, never use both in the same paper. In general, endnotes are easier to use than footnotes.

Numbering

As mentioned earlier, number footnotes or endnotes consecutively from the beginning to the end of your paper. DO NOT assign each source its own number or start with number 1 on each page. Use a new number for each citation even if several numbers refer to the same source.

Placement in the Text  

Place each citation number at the end of a direct or indirect quotation in the text.

 

Footnotes are placed on the bottom of the page on which they appear. Endnotes are placed on a separate sheet of paper headed Endnotes or Notes at the end of your research paper.

Format         

The numbers are superscript Arabic numerals. This means the numbers are raised a little above the words; many computer programs will do this automatically. Single-space each footnote, but double-space between entries.

Indenting

 Indent the first line of the footnote or endnote the same number of spaces as you did with the other paragraphs in your paper, usually five spaces. The second and all subsequent lines are placed flush left (to the left margin).

Spacing Leave two spaces after the number at the end of a sentence. Don't leave any extra space before the number.

 

Footnote and Endnote Format

The format for citing books, periodicals, Internet sources, and other sources differs slightly. Examples of footnote/end-note format for several possible sources are given below.

 

CITING BOOKS

The basic footnote/endnote citation for a book looks like

this:

Footnote number. Author's First Name and Last Name, Book Title (Place of publication: Publisher, date of publica­tion), page number.

Examples

Book by one author

6Phillip Roth. Portnoy's Complaint (NewYork: Random House, 1969) 23 I.

Part of a book

4David Daiches,"Samuel Richardson," in Twentieth Century Interpretations of Pamela, ed. Rosemary Cowler (Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey: Prentice-Hall, 2006) 14.

Encyclopedia

9Funk and Wagnalls, 12th edition, "New Brunswick."

 

CITING PERIODICALS

The basic footnote/endnote citation for a magazine, newspaper, or journal looks like this:

Footnote number. Author's First Name and Last Name, "Article Title," Periodica! Title, date, page number.

Examples

Article in a weekly or monthly magazine

3Trish Howard, "Time to Abolish the Electoral College," Newsweek, 16 July 2007, 23.

Review of a book, movie, or play

5Margaret Singer, "Science Fiction or Science Fact?" Review of Armageddon (movie), The LosAngelesTimes, I I August 2007, 22A.

Signed newspaper article

22Scott Sanders, "E-coli Poses Serious Threat to Travelers," Washington Post, 5 March 2007, Early City edition, sec. 3, p. 6.

Unsigned newspaper article

To cite an unsigned newspaper title, begin with the title. Include all information that your reader might need to locate the source, such as the edition, section number or letter, and page number.

"E-coli Poses Serious Threat to Travelers," Washington Post, 5 March 2007, Early City edition, sec. 3, p. 6.

 

CITING GOVERNMENT DOCUMENTS

The basic footnote/endnote citation for a government document looks like this:

Footnote number. Government agency. Subsidiary agency. Title of Document. Individual Author, if included. (Publication information, page numbers).

Example

l4United States Congressional House Subcommittee on Health and Education, Federal Policies Regarding Distribution of Aid to Dependent Children. 97th Congress. (Washington, DC: GPO, 2007), 63.

 

CITING INTERNET SOURCES

It's not as easy to cite Internet sources as it is to cite print sources because standards for citing Internet sources are still being developed. Further, web pages don't have a title page where you can easily locate the information needed for a reference.

Below are two examples of a widely accepted standard format for citing Internet sources. The first date is the date the web page was created or last modified. The second date is the date you accessed the web page. If the web page does not have a modification or creation date, leave it out, but always indicate your access date just before the URL.

Examples

"Robert Williams, "Community Service as a Requirement for High School Graduation." Area 9 Supervisors, January 2005, 22 April, 2007 <http://www.A9S.gc/lpeas/nsp/1245-09_e.html>.

"Emma Steinblock,"Giving Parents the Keys to the Kingdom: Allowing Parents Full Access to their College-Age Children's Grades and Behavior Record." American_Educator, Winter 2004,2 Nov, 2007 <http://www.americaneducator.org/review/winter2004/steinblock.html>.

 

CITING LECTURES OR SPEECHES

"William T. Greene, "Addressing the Needs of the Learning-Disabled Middle-School Child" (Paper presented at the National Council of Teachers of English 2007 Annual Convention. Detroit: Michigan, 22 November, 2007).

 

CITING INTERVIEWS

u'Meish Goldish, personal interview. 31 October 2007.

 

CITING TELEVISION OR RADIO SHOWS

fi"AIDS Research," 20/20. Narr. Barbara Walters, Prod. Kathy Coley, WABC, New York, 14 February, 2007.
 
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