Term paper on Paradigm change, Immigration policies, USSR and World War II

4. Unit 2 – Paradigm Change   What is a paradigm change? Why do organizations and individuals have problems with paradigm changes?


Paradigm generally denotes a pattern or a certain way of thinking and/or behaving. A shift of paradigm therefore means that a dramatic change in practice, methodology or way of thinking is taking place. In science, paradigm change means the change of basic scientific assumptions. Paradigm change causes dramatic changes in the way of doing something, in the methods of planning and implementing projects (for organizations) or in the methods of dealing with the external world (for individuals). In any case, paradigm change leads to the major overhaul in a set of patterns or standards.

Both for individuals and for organizations, paradigm changes can be difficult and even painful, because these changes entail changes of key techniques, strategies, approaches to solving problems, reaching organizational or individual goals. For individuals, the change of paradigm might mean the change of one’s method of thinking and set of values; such changes might lead to changes in all spheres of life for such individual, and, naturally, these changes are accompanied by external challenges, difficulties of adaptation to new circumstances, the need to master new methods and techniques, etc.

For organizations, the effect of paradigm change is similar. For example, the change of paradigm from reactive to proactive for organization means that instead of simply reacting to the changes of external environment, the organization will develop a strategic plan and adhere to it, while trying to forecast future trends and adapt its operational plans to expected changes in the environment. The change of paradigm inevitably leads to changes in strategic and tactical approaches, and these change processes might be difficult both for individuals and for organizations.

5. Unit 2 – Immigration Issues   Each country has immigration policies.  These are policies that provide guidelines for people coming into that particular country.  Look at a specific country and its immigration policies.  How do these policies fit with the vision and mission of the country?


I have chosen Australia for analysis in this question. Vision and mission of Australia is not explicitly stated, but it can be identified using Australian Values Statement which should be signed by applicants before immigration. Australian society values respect for the individual freedom and dignity, and in general supports the spirit of egalitarianism for all individuals, regardless of their religion, gender, race, ethnicity, etc. Mission of Australia can be formulated as letting every individual reach best self-realization, and vision can be stated as creation of a democratic country where all people are viewed as equal and are united by a common bond ”“ Australian citizenship.

Immigration policies of Australia are one of the most open among developed countries with strong economy. Australian immigration policies accept the following categories of people: skilled workers willing to live and work in Australia, students, providers of educational services, employers, investors, tourists and people visiting relatives, refugees and people eligible for humanitarian programs. Overall, the requirements of immigration programs in Australia are fair and provide chance for every decent person to immigrate and live in Australia. Therefore, Australian vision, mission and immigration policies are very well aligned, and fit each other.

6. Unit 2, Assignment 1 – USSR Case   The former Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR), or what we referred to as Russia, developed a series of five year plans to move the country forward economically. Few of the plans resulted in significant changes in the economic status of the country. What was the vision that was developed by the leadership of the country? What problems existed with the planning process?


Five-year plans were initially developed by Stalin to head the USSR into industrialization. However, the goals set by leadership were rather one-sided, and led to significant adverse effects in other spheres and industries. Moreover, the goal of the Soviet leaders was not to make the lives of people in the USSR better, but to move to being the largest world power and to gain leadership in specific spheres (such as the production of weapons and armaments, industrialization, space technology, etc.). The goals of Soviet leaders did not include improvement of economic status of the country (although that goal could be present in the declarations of the leaders). Such externalist vision was developed with little regard to the conditions of people’s lives. There also was enormous resource consumption and waste of resources. The main problems of such vision were competitive goals (state development was performed not for the sake of people, but for the sake of power), lack of in-depth analysis and lack of attention to the needs of people.

Other problems of planning process in Soviet Union included command-administrative approach with almost no feedback accepted ”“ which in fact means that phase 7 of strategic planning, monitoring and evaluating, was missing. Moreover, the lack of feedback gathering led to problems at phase 1 and phase 3 for the next five-year planning sessions, and in this way, the process had been getting worse with every iteration. Overall, the command-administrative approach does not fit the model of strategic planning, and it is quite expectable that this system eventually crashed.

7. Unit 2 – Assignment 2 – Visions in World War II. During World War II, the Allies sought to destroy the German armies through joint actions. There was coordination of the landings at Normandy and other fronts. Articulate the vision and the mission for both the allies and the Axis armies.


The mission of the Axis was to establish to power of white race (Aryan race), maintain national security and to reach dominance. The visions were the following: Germany wanted to dominate in Eastern Europe and Asia, Japan wanted to gain control over Philippines, Korea, southeast Asia and north China.

The mission of the Allies was to limit the power of Germans, and to support the development of democracy and the respect for human rights worldwide. The vision of the Allies in World War II was to stop Hitler and Nazi invasion and remove them from power, help restore democracy and freedom in Europe, save Jewish nation from genocide, and prevent next invasions of Hitler (in the UK and further).

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