Churchill: A Biography Term paper

Winston Leonard Spencer Churchill was born on the 30th of November 1874. His mother, a beautiful, lively, fun loving woman gave him birth exactly in the ball, which was organized by the Duke of Marlborough in his ancestral Blenheim Palace. The child was red-haired with obtuse and snub nose, looking like his ancestors from Marlborough clan. Winston grew up in London in his father’s house, being in the charge of his nanny Everest. In fact, Winston grew up without knowing his young parents. He grew strong, but far from being a beautiful child. The boy had a major defect in the speech: he stuttered and lisped. Being a terrible windbag, Winston distinguished himself by self-confidence and stubbornness.

From the very outset, Winston found a complete unwillingness to learn like his contemporaries. He had excellent memory, but mastered easily and quickly only what he was interested in disliking mathematics and classical languages. Misfortunes at school grieved his parents greatly.

After two unsuccessful attempts to enter the Sandhurst Higher School in August 1893 he was taken.

On the 24th of January 1895 Winston’s father died. His death was a serious blow to his son. Passing his final exam in Sandhurst, he became a lieutenant.

In 1900, Churchill proposed his candidature in the Parliament for the first time. Churchill hardly won the election, but it had no meaning, because he became the Member of Parliament, the member of the Conservative Party. He left this party naming himself as the independent Tory in 1904. In 1906, at the next election Churchill became the vice-Minister of the Colonies. In a very short time Churchill proved himself as a vigorous minister, very capable and enterprising. It was understood that he will work hard to serve the interests of the capitalist England. In May 1907 Churchill’s merits were generally recognized. So, being only 32 years old he became the secret adviser, the honorable gentleman in the parliament. In April 1908, Asquith became the Prime Minister of England. He suggested Churchill the position of a naval minister, the Ministry of Local Government. But Churchill decided to accept the post of Minister of Trade, despite the fact that this post was not highly quoted.

Churchill’s Lifestyle made his friends believe that Winston had decided to remain bachelor. But on the 15th of August, 1908 the newspapers informed about his engagement with 23-year-old Clementine Hozier. The bride belonged to the same range as Winston.

In 35 years, Churchill got the chair of Home Secretary. The Ministry controlled all prisons and colonies for juvenile offender, London police and fire protection, immigration control, roads, bridges, canals, mines, agriculture, fishing and etc.

Before the First World War Churchill focuses more and more attention to the questions of foreign policy. He spends a lot of time studying English relationships with the European countries. On the basis of ideas and information received from the military specialists, Churchill wrote a memorandum about “the military aspects of continental problem” and handed it the Prime Minister. The document became the undoubted success for Churchill.

On the 23rd of October 1911 Churchill changed to the Ministry of the Interior. His main goal on the new location was to prepare quickly the navy of England for the war with Germany, the war, which he considered, could begin at any moment.

Churchill’s activity in the Admiralty showed its results at the beginning of the war. The navy was prepared for the war. Ten days before Britain entered the war, the British Government viewed the relation to it. Churchill stood in favor of immediate entrance in the war. He called for urgent mobilization. When on August 1 Germany declared war to Russia, Churchill under his own responsibility ordered the full mobilization of the fleet. Next day, the Government confirmed Churchill’s decision and on the 4th of August, 1914 England declared war.

At the beginning of the First World War it seemed that the fate offers excellent prospects to Churchill. But his self-conceit and self-confidence created him enemies everywhere and finally interrupted his long political career.

On the day when England finished the war, all his thoughts had already been turned to a new war against the Soviet Russia. By early 1921, the Soviet Russia became firmly established in the international relations, and England was forced to acknowledge Bolshevistic Government.

This meant that Churchill had nothing to do in the militarily ministry. All in all the year 1921 was unhappy for Churchill ”“ in June his mother died and in 2 months – his small daughter.

The results of the next elections in 1922 became a serious blow to Churchill. For the first time since 1900, Churchill was outside the parliament. Doctors advised Churchill to rest. He and his wife went to the south of France. But he could not give up his political career as a bad job. One thing was clear that he could come back to power only through the Conservative Party. But even the next electoral campaign was unsuccessful.

In October 1924 Churchill became the Chancellor of the Exchequer. But in 1929, when the Labor Party came to power, he lost his post. He became a backbencher for 10 long years.

His career could end at that time, but he made a radical turning and started learning the problem of danger that more and more threatened England from the side of Germany.

Churchill believed that British potential military adversary was Germany. Because England is separated from the Western Europe by the impressive water barrier, it should beware of all German military aviation. Churchill kept viligilant watch on the development of military aviation in Germany and pressed for the fastest rearmament of the English aviation. Churchill’s speeches in the House of Commons on this question were among the most rational and successful.

Churchill before many other British politicians understood the threat that Germany presented to England. He was aware that it was more important for England that Germany was a dangerous enemy for them, than the fact that Germany was ready to fight against the Soviet Union. Having realized this, Churchill showed its superiority over other politicians of that time.

On the 28-th of May 1937 Stanley Baldwin resigned from the post of prime minister. Neville Chamberlain became his successor. And again Churchill was not included to the Government.

The World War II approached. It was clear that when it broke out, only energetic people would enter the government because they could lead the war against Germany. The objective development of events increased Churchill’s chances to enter the government and come to power. By the way Churchill understood clearly that fight against Germany was too hard without allies, so he needed the Soviet Russia as the main union.

On September 1 Chamberlain invited Churchill to join the government and become a member of the military cabinet. Churchill immediately agreed.

Declaring the war against Germany was the recognition of the collapse of Chamberlain’s official policy. So, only Churchill could become the obvious successor of Chamberlain as the prime minister. On the 10th of May 1940 the King instructed to form a government for Churchill.

Finally, Churchill received the power, which he tried to get all his life.

He earlier and clearer than other British leaders realized that the pledge of salvation in England is a military alliance with the Soviet Union and the United States. This is reflected in the Anglo-Soviet Union treaty signed on the 26th of May 1942.

In the early years of war, the Government widely advertised the willingness to discuss the system of reforms. As the victory became more real and close, the government stopped revising the projects of the post-war reforms. Great discontent was the fact that Churchill increasingly concentrated the power in his hands. Britain started to criticize Churchill gradually. In a moment the increase of his popularity a little bit slowed, and then a reverse process began. Churchill quickly changed his attitude to the Soviet Union, making it the main enemy like Nazi army.

On the 23rd of May 1945 Churchill resigned. He did not capture the moods, prevailing in the country. In the hour of his supreme triumph, when it seemed that the authority had reached its highest point, voters rejected Churchill and his party.

Churchill did not pay enough attention to his duties of the opposition leader, did not try to unite the conservatives in the House of Commons in monolithic group acting under a single leadership.

In 1951 Churchill became the prime Minister again. He was already 77 years old. His powerful body began to weaken. Deafness significantly increased. He became unable to catch the essence of things and events as earlier.

In February 1952, the English King George VI died at the age of 56 years. Elizabeth II, his daughter became the Queen of Great Britain. In 1953 the young queen awarded Churchill with the highest medal of England – the Order of the Garter. The award gave him knightly dignity and the right to be called Sir Winston Churchill.

The last Churchill’s political term was the pale period in his political biography. In January 1955, he made the final decision to withdraw from his work. The resignation of Churchill was prepared gradually, without noise.

At the beginning of January 1965 Churchill caught a cold and became helpless and feeble. On the 15th of January, he had the cerebral haemorrhage, and he lost consciousness. January 24, he peacefully died. Official Britain arranged the state funeral for Winston Churchill. It can be compared with the funerals of kings with their pomp and solemnity. The ceremony lasted several days and ended with Churchill remains’ funeral at a modest cemetery in the old parish church in Bladon, where his father and mother were buried in their times.

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