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Buy term paper online on Masculinity and Young Men’s Health

Social norms marketing campaigns hold promise for addressing a variety of health concerns relevant to men, including men’s incorrect perception that most men are unconcerned about their health.

As an example of possible cognitive techniques that may be used for changing the thinking and behavior of the alcohol drinkers I would suggest to mention the figures of alcohol-related mortality in the integrated social marketing campaign, such as: “Almost 54 percent were from diseases attributed to chronic alcohol abuse; the rest were intentional or unintentional injury deaths. Two-thirds of the alcohol-related deaths were of males. Alcoholic men have a mortality rate that is two to six times higher than that of the average male.”

Then the information about the possible diseases and injuries connected with alcohol consumption should be mentioned: ‘Alcohol abuse increases the risk of cancer at several sites. Most notably, abuse is responsible for 75 percent of the deaths from cancer of the esophagus and 50 percent of those from cancer of the larynx and the lip/oral cavity/pharynx. It also contributes to cardiovascular, respiratory and digestive system diseases and to fatal mental disorders. Alcohol impairs physical and psychological functioning. It lessens visual acuity, diminishes motor control, slows reflexes and increases risk taking.’ (Courtenay ,2004)

Then in accordance to the principles of the social cognitive approach, the social skills training should be made. It means that individuals will be taught to behave in a different way, for instance they will be told that the substance use may be overcome and a lot depends on the persons perception and self control.

This kind of training aims to form the skills and motivation to allow drug and alcohol abusers to improve their functioning in social situations. It’s tremendously important instrument, because once the abusers are in the certain social situations they may subject to repeat of the previous pattern of the unhealthy behavior. So the goal is to suggest the new pattern, new behavioral options for the certain risky situations.  ‘At the root of many high-risk situations identified by substance abusers is a difficulty in interacting positively with other individuals (e.g., interpersonal conflict, social pressure). Enhancement of this skill is thought to have positive implications for maintaining substance use goals.’ (Courtenay, 2004)

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1. The need of further research of the young males’ reproductive health

Marcell et al. (2008) argues that many studies of male adolescents’ health needs are way too old (some of them even more than 30 years old) and concentrated on young men (aged 15 to 19) and in addition these studies do not provide analysis of young men’s reproductive health needs. Taking into account the consideration how important of male adolescents’ health reproductive needs, they have to be paid more attention.

2. Sexuality, risky behaviour, STIs, and HIV/AIDS rates among young males

Park and Breland (2007) indicate that sexual and reproductive health and males’ health care attract increased attention in the recent years. Sexuality and sexual identity are extremely important aspects for males. Despite the fact that men’s sexual health is more likely to be improved in the adult age, Park and Breland (2007) remind that ‘rates of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) remain high and disparities persist’. Additionally it has to be noted that some groups of young males, for example, young African American men, are known as having higher rates of risky behaviour, STIs, and HIV/AIDS.

Clinical care, education, and improved access to services are the strategies that have to be applied towards young males in order to decrease the rates of sexually transmitted infections among them. It is clear that all groups of males, including homosexual youth, have to be the target audience of such strategy.

Nikula et al. (2009) presents the study that specifically targets young men (18–25 years). The study is designed for research of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) among the youth in Europe. As a result, author revealed that every country has its own socio-demographic patterning for sexual behaviour. (Nikula et al, 2009)

According to Lewis (2004), men’s sexual health is extremely important subject of research. This researcher notes that ‘males in general are often perceived as having less interest than women in taking care of their own health, and in general use services less.’ (Lewis, 2004)

3. Alcohol and drugs abuses among young males

Young males are more likely to suffer from alcohol and drugs abuse than other social groups. Royster (2006) indicates that substance abuse is particularly serious problem among the males that has less education: ‘focus group participants with fewer educational and financial resources discussed drug-infested communities, economic barriers, crime, lack of affordable health insurance, and perceived discrimination in health care encounters. Participants with more formal education and more financial resources expressed concerns about managed care and chronic diseases. These results demonstrate the importance of male gender socialization in the health of African American men.’ (Royster, 2006)

The study made by Royster (2006) shown that men of these groups who suffer from substance abuse of often live in low-income communities or had personal histories of substance abuse. (Royster, 2006)

Alcoholism is a disease as it has an identifiable cluster of symptoms predictive of a course and outcome. It is not an infectious disease or one in which cells multiply wildly. Rather it is the result of a bio-psychosocial process. Environmental factors, such as availability of alcohol, social acceptance of drinking and drunkenness and peer pressure to drink play a decided role. But its primary root appears to be biological.  The community-based approach to social marketing can be offered as the effective method of  changing the patterns of behaviour of those young males who suffer from the substance use. Usage of cognitive techniques of the social marketing may prove to be very effective. The people who use substances will be shown the negative results of such using.

Courtenay (2004) confirms that healthy social norms may be formed by the social marketing campaign. Research indicates that when people’s perceived norm is challenged with evidence of the actual norm, the unhealthy behaviour often decreases [2].

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Masculinity and Young Men’s Health custom essay

1. Scales of masculinity

The attention of the researcher who decided to take a closer look at the masculinity is drawn first to the traits or so called scales that define masculinity. According to the researches, there are ten traits that serve for determination of masculinity:

‘1) physiological energy;

2) physical characteristics;

3) gender-related socio-cultural roles;

4) idealized gender;

5) gender preferences;

6) subjective gender-identity;

7) gender-related age identity;

8) gender-related racial and national identities;

9) lust;

10) male eroticism.’ (Chesebro and Fuse, 2001)


2. The attitude of young males towards health

In accordance to the latest health care trends, there is a tendency to actively engage young males and boys into the family planning process. But as Marcell et al. (2008) claim there is a lack of motivation for young males to apply for health care services a frequent as female do.

In addition, the seeking of health services may even be considered as demonstration of weakness or not masculine behavior. According to the various researches such as Marcell, Raine, & Eyre (2003) and reproductive health and sexually transmitted infection (STI) prevention aren’t not among the priorities of the young men, in comparison to other aspects of their lives.

Royster (2006) point out that overall men have poorer health than women and it is especially applies to African American men. His research has proved that the major barriers to health for young males were certain aspects of male gender socialization. It involves the following elements: as unhealthy diet, limited exercise, unsafe sex, and substance abuse. (Royster, 2006)

As a practical example of the study of male audience and its attitudes towards health, the research by O’Kane (2008) dedicated to rural Australian men including farmers could be suggested for discussion. Author has managed to identify barriers to the healthy lifestyle experienced by the sample audience. According to this research, ‘the major barriers to eating a healthy diet were lack of willpower (39%), lack of time (24%) and enjoying eating “unhealthy” foods (24%). Barriers to undertaking physical activity were lack of time (43%), lack of willpower (36%), tiredness (27%) and long hours in sedentary jobs (27%). Eating habits could be improved with simple weekly meal plans (49%), lower cost of healthy food (36%), and growing their own food (34%). More active recreational pursuits could improve physical activity participation (48%). These solutions target efforts to improve health outcomes for rural Australian men.’ (O’Kane, 2008) The results of study presented by O’Kane (2008) are very useful for the analysis; they describe the lifestyle of local young males and may serve as an example for similar researches of the problem in other areas.

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Buy an essay on Masculinity and Young Men’s Health

Masculinity is the subject of the present research. Masculinity is a common perception that is formed in the mind of the people as the combination of the various images and characteristics of different men. (Keeling, 1998) Norman (2011) suggests that ‘young men are confronted with competing discourses of masculinity where they are simultaneously incited to work on and transform their bodies into culturally recognizable ideals, while at the same time remaining distant and aloof to the size, shape, and appearance of their bodies.’

The paper will be concentrated on the important health issues related to masculinity such as sexual health, drug and alcohol related risk, and access to health services. The presumption could be made that the substance-abuse behaviors such as consumption of alcohol and drugs despite their physical dependence nature may be cured with the social interference. Overall, health care institutions and policy makers have to pay much more attention to the extremely important issue of young men’s health.

Marcel et al. (2002) states that there are certain risks more likely to happen to males than to females during their adolescence. Among these risks are alcohol and marijuana use, accidental trauma, and violence. (Marcel et al, 2002) Also, there are other significant issues related to young males such as the spread of sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) and unintended pregnancy and as they become older the problems become even more serious because the rates of mortality from behaviorally mediated causes even increase. (Marcel et al, 2002) In addition, there is strong logical argument presented by Mahalik and Levi-Minzi (2007) that explains the men’s greater frequency of health risk behaviors. ‘Health risk behaviors may be manifestations of how some men construct masculinity.’ (Levi-Minzi, 2007)

It is known that young male adolescents visit health care institutions more frequently than adult males. In younger age boy use health care as frequent as girls. But it has to be clarified that adult males use health care services less often than do adult females. (Marcel et al, 2002) Thus, it is clear that the research of males’ transitional period from adolescents to adulthood is crucially important because it required in order decreasing males’ health risks health.

Chesebro and Fuse (2001) in their article ‘The Development of a Perceived Masculinity Scale’ identify the masculinity as ‘the discourses generated by men, unifying men, and revealing the identity and characteristics men ascribe to themselves, others, and their environment’

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Aphrodite in Greek Art custom essay second part

The next example also belonging to the Classical period is the red-figured squat jar used either for oil or perfume. It is also called a lekythos and is attributed to the Meidias Painter (Figure 2). The jar was made in Athens, Greece between 420 and 400 B.C. The title of the image is “Aphrodite in the Gardens.”

Here Aphrodite is still dressed plentifully, and the image presents a picture with a specific plot. The style of the Meidias Painter and his associates is recognized by such characteristics as the elegant faces of women, the garden scene itself and, after all, their rich, multi-pleated drapery (Mallory & Adams 44). The names of each of the characters is written in white letters alongside the jar. Aphrodite is imaged as a seated figure, with her winged son Eros on her shoulder. To the right is Peitho, the goddess of Persuasion. In the picture she is attaching sprays of leaves to a kanoun (a basket used in processions). To the left there are three female figures. These are Kleopatra, Eunomia and Paidia. Each of them are personifications of certain dignities, and the interpretations are also written on the jar: Kleopatra is “Of noble parentage”, Eunomia stands for “Good Order”, and Paidia is responsible for “Games and Playfulness” (Mallory and Adams 45). The goddess is offered fruit or a necklace from them, and thus the contemporary issues of philosophy are reflected. This was a time when the cults of personifications were rising: each dignity or sphere of human life and relationships was personified by a female or male character.

As for the depiction of a rich and peaceful garden, there are several explanations. On the one hand, it was the Athenian cult of the late 5th century which stressed the links of the goddess with nature and vegetation, their renewal and rebirth (Mallory and Adams 45). On the other hand, it was probably an act of escapism. At that time the Athenians were involved in war with the Peloponnesians, and the master expressed his wish to forget about the devastating fighting and to run for a garden paradise with its beauty, peace and harmony.

Now we turn to the Hellenistic period. The cult of Aphrodite was prospering, but there were certain changes in how the goddess was approached. While earlier she was more in charge of physical pleasure and procreation, with time she received the status of something loftier and more exalted. For example, this is a Haviland bronze statuette of Aphrodite from the Late Hellenistic period (Figure 3). The statuette belongs to the late 2nd or early 1st century B.C. This is a unique object, because statuettes of such height (18 inches, or 45.7 cm) were not typical for this period. It is not known for certain who is depicted in the statuette, but it is normally recognized as Aphrodite. Here she is already absolutely naked, and thus the statuette becomes an act of worshiping female beauty and grace. The pose of the goddess is quiet, not motional; her arms are raised and bent sharply at the elbows, while her head is slightly inclined to the left shoulder. Unfortunately, the left arm is missing, but for specialists that is not a problem, while they base their arguments on a number of similar figures like the Pourtales Aphrodite in the British Museum, which are, however, smaller in size.

Another interesting detail is the hair of Aphrodite. It is fastened in a knot; the knot is tied with a fillet, then, it is wound twice round the head and decorated with a meander pattern (Richter 32). The outlines of the pattern can be seen, though they are rather faint.

As for the position, here it is hypothetically of lifting a necklace or a garland. In fact, it is the quiet grace of the figure’s composition together with the refined modeling that makes the specialists attribute the work to the Greek workmanship of the 4th century, simultaneous with Praxiteles.

Finally, one more Hellenistic artwork is the marble group of Aphrodite, Pan and Eros (Figure 4). This work was made in Delos, in the Cyclades, around 100 B.C. The sculpture, made of Parian marble, is 1.55 m tall. On the base of the sculpture there is an inscription that this group was dedicated to the ancestral gods by Dionysios of Berytos (modern Beirut). Here we see Aphrodite again naked, next to her is the goat-footed god Pan and above them is Eros, her son and messenger. It is often explained that Pan is trying to seduce the goddess and is just making erotic advances in the picture, while Aphrodite is fending him off and threatening the goat-footed god with the sandal in her right hand. The role of the winged god is typically to defend her.

However, such a description is sometimes disputed. G. W. Elderkin undertakes a research to identify the links between Aphrodite and Pan to find an alternative explanation of the scene. In particular, there are several traces of Aphrodite appearing in the myths together with a goat or even on a goat. There is also a story connecting the goddess with the character Aigeus, whose name is translated as “goat” too. For Elderkin the intimate relation between Aigeus and Aphrodite is obvious. It was Aigeus who presented the cult of the goddess to Athens in the 5th century B.C. (Elderkin 381). In the view of G. W. Elderkin (382), none of the figures expresses a sign of struggle, and the goddess does not look alarmed. Eros is explained to be satisfied for his efforts on uniting the two. Besides, it is doubtful that a donor from Beirut could be inspired by a scene of Aphrodite’s resistance to the goat-footed god as it was not a typical sphere of interest for Beirutian. Exploring many other related objects, the researcher comes to the conclusion that footwear at that time was used an important indication of erotic intentions.

In this way, the development of the theme of Aphrodite, the goddess of love and beauty, has been traced through the Classical and Hellenistic periods of Greek art. Significant differences in approach have been revealed, and the main shift is that the image of Aphrodite became more undisguised and sensual. The association with the practice of ritual prostitution was later abandoned, and the attitude to the goddess influenced the way she was depicted. Besides, the scenery and background has acquired more details, many of which have symbolic meaning and reflect religious, social, economic and political views of the Greek.

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